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Article

Intranasal Borna Disease Virus (BoDV-1) Infection: Insights into Initial Steps and Potential Contagiosity

1
Institute of Veterinary Pathology, Justus Liebig University, 35392 Giessen, Germany
2
Institute of Virology, Philipps University, 35043 Marburg, Germany
3
Institute of Functional and Applied Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, 30625 Hannover, Germany
4
Institute for Anatomy and Cell Biology, Division of Medical Cell Biology, Justus Liebig University, 35385 Giessen, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1318; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20061318
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 10 March 2019 / Published: 15 March 2019
Mammalian Bornavirus (BoDV-1) typically causes a fatal neurologic disorder in horses and sheep, and was recently shown to cause fatal encephalitis in humans with and without transplant reception. It has been suggested that BoDV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS) via the olfactory pathway. However, (I) susceptible cell types that replicate the virus for successful spread, and (II) the role of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), remained unclear. To address this, we studied the intranasal infection of adult rats with BoDV-1 in vivo and in vitro, using olfactory mucosal (OM) cell cultures and the cultures of purified OECs. Strikingly, in vitro and in vivo, viral antigen and mRNA were present from four days post infection (dpi) onwards in the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), but also in all other cell types of the OM, and constantly in the OECs. In contrast, in vivo, BoDV-1 genomic RNA was only detectable in adult and juvenile ORNs, nerve fibers, and in OECs from 7 dpi on. In vitro, the rate of infection of OECs was significantly higher than that of the OM cells, pointing to a crucial role of OECs for infection via the olfactory pathway. Thus, this study provides important insights into the transmission of neurotropic viral infections with a zoonotic potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: borna disease virus; initial phase; olfactory epithelium; olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs; in vivo; in vitro borna disease virus; initial phase; olfactory epithelium; olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs; in vivo; in vitro
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kupke, A.; Becker, S.; Wewetzer, K.; Ahlemeyer, B.; Eickmann, M.; Herden, C. Intranasal Borna Disease Virus (BoDV-1) Infection: Insights into Initial Steps and Potential Contagiosity. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 1318. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20061318

AMA Style

Kupke A, Becker S, Wewetzer K, Ahlemeyer B, Eickmann M, Herden C. Intranasal Borna Disease Virus (BoDV-1) Infection: Insights into Initial Steps and Potential Contagiosity. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(6):1318. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20061318

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kupke, Alexandra, Sabrina Becker, Konstantin Wewetzer, Barbara Ahlemeyer, Markus Eickmann, and Christiane Herden. 2019. "Intranasal Borna Disease Virus (BoDV-1) Infection: Insights into Initial Steps and Potential Contagiosity" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20, no. 6: 1318. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms20061318

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