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Review

MicroRNAs as Key Players in Melanoma Cell Resistance to MAPK and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors

1
Department of Motor and Wellness Sciences, University “Parthenope”, 80133 Naples, Italy
2
Neoplastic Progression Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS ‘Fondazione G. Pascale’, 80131 Naples, Italy
3
Melanoma, Cancer Immunotherapy and Development Therapeutics Unit, Istituto Nazionale Tumori-IRCCS Fondazione “G. Pascale”, 80131 Naples, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4544; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124544
Received: 30 May 2020 / Revised: 19 June 2020 / Accepted: 24 June 2020 / Published: 26 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Prognostic and Predictive Markers in Cancer Progression)
Advances in the use of targeted and immune therapies have revolutionized the clinical management of melanoma patients, prolonging significantly their overall and progression-free survival. However, both targeted and immune therapies suffer limitations due to genetic mutations and epigenetic modifications, which determine a great heterogeneity and phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells. Acquired resistance of melanoma patients to inhibitors of BRAF (BRAFi) and MEK (MEKi), which block the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, limits their prolonged use. On the other hand, immune checkpoint inhibitors improve the outcomes of patients in only a subset of them and the molecular mechanisms underlying lack of responses are under investigation. There is growing evidence that altered expression levels of microRNAs (miRNA)s induce drug-resistance in tumor cells and that restoring normal expression of dysregulated miRNAs may re-establish drug sensitivity. However, the relationship between specific miRNA signatures and acquired resistance of melanoma to MAPK and immune checkpoint inhibitors is still limited and not fully elucidated. In this review, we provide an updated overview of how miRNAs induce resistance or restore melanoma cell sensitivity to mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (MAPKi) as well as on the relationship existing between miRNAs and immune evasion by melanoma cell resistant to MAPKi. View Full-Text
Keywords: miRNA; melanoma; melanoma resistance to MAPK/MEK inhibitors; resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors miRNA; melanoma; melanoma resistance to MAPK/MEK inhibitors; resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Motti, M.L.; Minopoli, M.; Di Carluccio, G.; Ascierto, P.A.; Carriero, M.V. MicroRNAs as Key Players in Melanoma Cell Resistance to MAPK and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 4544. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124544

AMA Style

Motti ML, Minopoli M, Di Carluccio G, Ascierto PA, Carriero MV. MicroRNAs as Key Players in Melanoma Cell Resistance to MAPK and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(12):4544. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124544

Chicago/Turabian Style

Motti, Maria L., Michele Minopoli, Gioconda Di Carluccio, Paolo A. Ascierto, and Maria V. Carriero 2020. "MicroRNAs as Key Players in Melanoma Cell Resistance to MAPK and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 12: 4544. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21124544

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