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Review

Is Sleep Disruption a Cause or Consequence of Alzheimer’s Disease? Reviewing Its Possible Role as a Biomarker

1
Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University Clinic Hospital of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Health Research Institute INCLIVA, Avda. Blasco Ibanez, 15, 46010 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(3), 1168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21031168
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 8 February 2020 / Published: 10 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peripheral Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Diseases)
In recent years, the idea that sleep is critical for cognitive processing has gained strength. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia worldwide and presents a high prevalence of sleep disturbances. However, it is difficult to establish causal relations, since a vicious circle emerges between different aspects of the disease. Nowadays, we know that sleep is crucial to consolidate memory and to remove the excess of beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorilated tau accumulated in AD patients’ brains. In this review, we discuss how sleep disturbances often precede in years some pathological traits, as well as cognitive decline, in AD. We describe the relevance of sleep to memory consolidation, focusing on changes in sleep patterns in AD in contrast to normal aging. We also analyze whether sleep alterations could be useful biomarkers to predict the risk of developing AD and we compile some sleep-related proposed biomarkers. The relevance of the analysis of the sleep microstructure is highlighted to detect specific oscillatory patterns that could be useful as AD biomarkers. View Full-Text
Keywords: REM; NREM; SWS; SWA; Spindles; CSF amyloid; CSF tau REM; NREM; SWS; SWA; Spindles; CSF amyloid; CSF tau
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lloret, M.-A.; Cervera-Ferri, A.; Nepomuceno, M.; Monllor, P.; Esteve, D.; Lloret, A. Is Sleep Disruption a Cause or Consequence of Alzheimer’s Disease? Reviewing Its Possible Role as a Biomarker. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1168. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21031168

AMA Style

Lloret M-A, Cervera-Ferri A, Nepomuceno M, Monllor P, Esteve D, Lloret A. Is Sleep Disruption a Cause or Consequence of Alzheimer’s Disease? Reviewing Its Possible Role as a Biomarker. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(3):1168. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21031168

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lloret, Maria-Angeles, Ana Cervera-Ferri, Mariana Nepomuceno, Paloma Monllor, Daniel Esteve, and Ana Lloret. 2020. "Is Sleep Disruption a Cause or Consequence of Alzheimer’s Disease? Reviewing Its Possible Role as a Biomarker" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 3: 1168. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21031168

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