Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are gut hormones that are secreted from enteroendocrine L cells and K cells in response to digested nutrients, respectively. They are also referred to incretin for their ability to stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells in a glucose-dependent manner. Furthermore, GLP-1 exerts anorexic effects via its actions in the central nervous system. Since native incretin is rapidly inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), DPP-resistant GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), and DPP-4 inhibitors are currently used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as incretin-based therapy. These new-class agents have superiority to classical oral hypoglycemic agents such as sulfonylureas because of their low risks for hypoglycemia and body weight gain. In addition, a number of preclinical studies have shown the cardioprotective properties of incretin-based therapy, whose findings are further supported by several randomized clinical trials. Indeed, GLP-1RA has been significantly shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular and renal events in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the role of GIP in cardiovascular disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, pharmacological doses of GIP receptor agonists (GIPRAs) have been found to exert anti-obesity effects in animal models. These observations suggest that combination therapy of GLP-1R and GIPR may induce superior metabolic and anti-diabetic effects compared with each agonist individually. Clinical trials with GLP-1R/GIPR dual agonists are ongoing in diabetic patients. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the cardiovascular effects of GIP and GIPRAs in cell culture systems, animal models, and humans.
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