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Article

Toward Tailoring the Degradation Rate of Magnesium-Based Biomaterials for Various Medical Applications: Assessing Corrosion, Cytocompatibility and Immunological Effects

1
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany
2
Department of Materials Test Engineering (WPT), TU Dortmund University, Baroper Str. 303, D-44227 Dortmund, Germany
3
First Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr. 52, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany
4
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Division of Regenerative Orofacial Medicine, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(2), 971; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020971
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 13 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
Magnesium (Mg)-based biomaterials hold considerable promise for applications in regenerative medicine. However, the degradation of Mg needs to be reduced to control toxicity caused by its rapid natural corrosion. In the process of developing new Mg alloys with various surface modifications, an efficient assessment of the relevant properties is essential. In the present study, a WE43 Mg alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)-generated surface was investigated. Surface microstructure, hydrogen gas evolution in immersion tests and cytocompatibility were assessed. In addition, a novel in vitro immunological test using primary human lymphocytes was introduced. On PEO-treated WE43, a larger number of pores and microcracks, as well as increased roughness, were observed compared to untreated WE43. Hydrogen gas evolution after two weeks was reduced by 40.7% through PEO treatment, indicating a significantly reduced corrosion rate. In contrast to untreated WE43, PEO-treated WE43 exhibited excellent cytocompatibility. After incubation for three days, untreated WE43 killed over 90% of lymphocytes while more than 80% of the cells were still vital after incubation with the PEO-treated WE43. PEO-treated WE43 slightly stimulated the activation, proliferation and toxin (perforin and granzyme B) expression of CD8+ T cells. This study demonstrates that the combined assessment of corrosion, cytocompatibility and immunological effects on primary human lymphocytes provide a comprehensive and effective procedure for characterizing Mg variants with tailorable degradation and other features. PEO-treated WE43 is a promising candidate for further development as a degradable biomaterial. View Full-Text
Keywords: magnesium; plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); microstructure; hydrogen evolution; cytocompatibility; immunological effects magnesium; plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO); microstructure; hydrogen evolution; cytocompatibility; immunological effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hartjen, P.; Wegner, N.; Ahmadi, P.; Matthies, L.; Nada, O.; Fuest, S.; Yan, M.; Knipfer, C.; Gosau, M.; Walther, F.; Smeets, R. Toward Tailoring the Degradation Rate of Magnesium-Based Biomaterials for Various Medical Applications: Assessing Corrosion, Cytocompatibility and Immunological Effects. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 971. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020971

AMA Style

Hartjen P, Wegner N, Ahmadi P, Matthies L, Nada O, Fuest S, Yan M, Knipfer C, Gosau M, Walther F, Smeets R. Toward Tailoring the Degradation Rate of Magnesium-Based Biomaterials for Various Medical Applications: Assessing Corrosion, Cytocompatibility and Immunological Effects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2021; 22(2):971. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020971

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hartjen, Philip, Nils Wegner, Parimah Ahmadi, Levi Matthies, Ola Nada, Sandra Fuest, Ming Yan, Christian Knipfer, Martin Gosau, Frank Walther, and Ralf Smeets. 2021. "Toward Tailoring the Degradation Rate of Magnesium-Based Biomaterials for Various Medical Applications: Assessing Corrosion, Cytocompatibility and Immunological Effects" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 2: 971. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms22020971

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