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Article

Contamination Evaluation and Source Identification of Heavy Metals in the Sediments from the Lishui River Watershed, Southern China

1
School of Marine Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
2
Jiangsu Research Center for Ocean Survey Technology, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3
Environmental and Chemical Engineering College, Xi’an Poly-technic University, Xi’an 710048, China
4
School of Tourism, Taishan University, Tai’an 271021, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 336; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030336
Received: 8 December 2018 / Revised: 1 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 25 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Environmental Risk Assessment)
Seven heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) were measured in surface sediments from the Lishui River watershed, an area with increased soil erosion in China. The mean concentrations of heavy metals were 61.20 mg/kg (Cr), 757.15 mg/kg (Mn), 9.39 mg/kg (Co), 25.31 mg/kg (Ni), 22.84 mg/kg (Cu), 91.66 mg/kg (Zn), and 40.19 mg/kg (Pb), respectively. The spatial distribution of heavy metals was site-specific, exhibiting a remarkably high level in the sampling stations with intense agricultural activities (Lixian) and industrial activities (Jinshi). Contamination indexes including contamination factor, pollution load index, nemerow multi-factor index, potential ecological risk index, and human health risk were used to assess the pollution degree of the river sediments. The results indicated the pollution degree of heavy metals decreased in the order of Mn > Pb > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Co. Heavy metals resulted in non-pollution to moderate pollution, with low ecological risk and an acceptable carcinogenic risk caused by Cr and Ni for children and adults. Person’s correlation analysis and principal component analysis, coupled with cluster analysis, revealed that the sediments from the Lishui River were mainly influenced by two sources. Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu were mainly derived from natural sources, while Mn, Zn, and Pb originated from agricultural and industrial activities, mining, and vehicular traffic. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; surface sediments; contamination evaluation; source identification; the Lishui River heavy metals; surface sediments; contamination evaluation; source identification; the Lishui River
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, F.; Mao, L.; Sun, R.; Du, J.; Tan, Z.; Ding, M. Contamination Evaluation and Source Identification of Heavy Metals in the Sediments from the Lishui River Watershed, Southern China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 336. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030336

AMA Style

Shen F, Mao L, Sun R, Du J, Tan Z, Ding M. Contamination Evaluation and Source Identification of Heavy Metals in the Sediments from the Lishui River Watershed, Southern China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(3):336. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030336

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shen, Fang, Longjiang Mao, Runxia Sun, Jijing Du, Zhihai Tan, and Min Ding. 2019. "Contamination Evaluation and Source Identification of Heavy Metals in the Sediments from the Lishui River Watershed, Southern China" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 3: 336. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16030336

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