The main aim of this research project was to determine the relationship that exists between autonomy at work and both burnout and job satisfaction, taking into account the moderating effect of the personality factors extroversion and neuroticism. The study was carried out with 971 volunteers (553 women and 418 men) with a mean age of 37.58 years. The majority had either a university degree (485 participants) or higher education qualifications (Spanish baccalaureate) (202 participants). The following instruments were administered: the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), to measure burnout among participants; the Mini International Personality Item Pool Scale (Mini-IPIP) by Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, and Lucas (2006) to measure the personality factors extroversion and neuroticism; the Brief Index of Affective Job Satisfaction (BIAJS) by Thompson and Phua (2012); and the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) by Karasek (1985) to measure autonomy at work. The results obtained indicate that those who enjoy greater autonomy at work have lower levels of emotional exhaustion. The stronger the effect is, the higher the score for extroversion. The personality factors studied were not found to have a direct influence on the criterion variables. However, the interaction effects were significant, except in the case of neuroticism. The results indicate that there are no differences between those who score highly for extroversion and neuroticism and the rest of the population in terms of predicting emotional exhaustion or job satisfaction. The present study aims to serve as a guideline for recruitment specialists, business owners, and job designers, encouraging them to take into account all these variables in order to foster the development of healthy and competitive organizations. Environmental moderators that could interfere with the result have not been introduced in this research. It has focused on the study of the personality factors of the workers, considering that the professional functions performed by the workers were similar.
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