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Article

Hospital Admissions Due to Ischemic Heart Diseases and Prescriptions of Cardiovascular Diseases Medications in England and Wales in the Past Two Decades

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Department of Applied Pharmaceutical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman 11622, Jordan
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Faculty of Medicine, Umm Alqura University, Mecca 21514, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Center, Little Rock, AR 72205, USA
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Department of Pharmaceutical and Biological Sciences, UCL School of Pharmacy, London WC1E 6BT, UK
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School of Pharmacy, Institute of Clinical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
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Department of Pharmacy Practice, Kuwait University, Kuwait 12037, Kuwait
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Department of Pediatric, School of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
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Family Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 22254, Saudi Arabia
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Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman 11733, Jordan
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Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 20742, USA
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Heart and Vascular Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Sara Ibrahim Hemmo and Abdallah Y. Naser have equal contribution in this study.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7041; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137041
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 27 June 2021 / Accepted: 28 June 2021 / Published: 1 July 2021
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the trend of ischemic heart disease (IHD) admission and the prescriptions of IHD medications in England and Wales. Methods: A secular trends study was conducted during the period of 1999 to 2019. We extracted hospital admission data for patients from all age groups from the Hospital Episode Statistics database in England and the Patient Episode Database for Wales. Prescriptions of IHD medications were extracted from the Prescription Cost Analysis database from 2004 to 2019. The chi-squared test was used to assess the difference between the admission rates and the difference between IHD medication prescription rates. The trends in IHD-related hospital admission and IHD-related medication prescription were assessed using a Poisson model. The correlation between hospital admissions for IHD and its IHD medication-related prescriptions was assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: Our study detected a significant increase in the rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) medication prescriptions in England and Wales, representing a rise in the CVD medications prescription rate of 41.8% (from 539,334.95 (95% CI = 539,286.30–539,383.59) in 2004 to 764,584.55 (95% CI = 764,545.55–764,623.56) in 2019 prescriptions per 100,000 persons), with a mean increase of 2.8% per year during the past 15 years. This increase was connected with a reduction in the IHD hospital admission rate by 15.4% (from 838.50 (95% CI = 836.05–840.94) in 2004 to 709.78 (95% CI = 707.65–711.92) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.01), with a mean decrease of 1.02% per year during the past 15 years and by 5% (from 747.43 (95% CI = 745.09–749.77) in 1999 to 709.78 (95% CI = 707.65–711.92) in 2019 per 100,000 persons, trend test, p < 0.01) with a mean decrease of 0.25% per year during the past two decades in England and Wales. Conclusion: The rate of hospitalisation due to IHD has decreased in England and Wales during the past two decades. Hospitalisation due to IHD was strongly and negatively correlated with the increase in the rates of dispensing of IHD-related medications. Other factors contributing to this decline could be the increase in controlling IHD risk factors during the past few years. Future studies exploring other risk factors that are associated with IHD hospitalisation are warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: IHD; admission rate; IHD medication; trend; IHD rate; IHD medication rate IHD; admission rate; IHD medication; trend; IHD rate; IHD medication rate
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hemmo, S.I.; Naser, A.Y.; Alwafi, H.; Mansour, M.M.; Alanazi, A.F.R.; Jalal, Z.; Alsairafi, Z.K.; Paudyal, V.; Alomari, E.; Al-Momani, H.; Salawati, E.M.; Samannodi, M.; Dairi, M.S.; Al Bawab, A.Q.; Mustafa Ali, M.K.; Alkharabsheh, S. Hospital Admissions Due to Ischemic Heart Diseases and Prescriptions of Cardiovascular Diseases Medications in England and Wales in the Past Two Decades. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 7041. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137041

AMA Style

Hemmo SI, Naser AY, Alwafi H, Mansour MM, Alanazi AFR, Jalal Z, Alsairafi ZK, Paudyal V, Alomari E, Al-Momani H, Salawati EM, Samannodi M, Dairi MS, Al Bawab AQ, Mustafa Ali MK, Alkharabsheh S. Hospital Admissions Due to Ischemic Heart Diseases and Prescriptions of Cardiovascular Diseases Medications in England and Wales in the Past Two Decades. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13):7041. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137041

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hemmo, Sara I., Abdallah Y. Naser, Hassan Alwafi, Munthir M. Mansour, Abeer F.R. Alanazi, Zahraa Jalal, Zahra K. Alsairafi, Vibhu Paudyal, Esra’a Alomari, Hamzeh Al-Momani, Emad M. Salawati, Mohammed Samannodi, Mohammad S. Dairi, Abdel Q. Al Bawab, Moaath K. Mustafa Ali, and Saqer Alkharabsheh. 2021. "Hospital Admissions Due to Ischemic Heart Diseases and Prescriptions of Cardiovascular Diseases Medications in England and Wales in the Past Two Decades" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 13: 7041. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18137041

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