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The Intersection of Rural Residence and Minority Race/Ethnicity in Cancer Disparities in the United States

1
Rural & Minority Health Research Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29210, USA
2
Big Data Health Science Center, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
3
College of Arts and Sciences, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
4
Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
5
Department of Exercise Science, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
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College of Social Work, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
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Department of Health Services Policy and Management, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
8
St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1384; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041384
Received: 18 December 2020 / Revised: 29 January 2021 / Accepted: 30 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Disparities Among Rural Minority Populations)
One in every twenty-five persons in America is a racial/ethnic minority who lives in a rural area. Our objective was to summarize how racism and, subsequently, the social determinants of health disproportionately affect rural racial/ethnic minority populations, provide a review of the cancer disparities experienced by rural racial/ethnic minority groups, and recommend policy, research, and intervention approaches to reduce these disparities. We found that rural Black and American Indian/Alaska Native populations experience greater poverty and lack of access to care, which expose them to greater risk of developing cancer and experiencing poorer cancer outcomes in treatment and ultimately survival. There is a critical need for additional research to understand the disparities experienced by all rural racial/ethnic minority populations. We propose that policies aim to increase access to care and healthcare resources for these communities. Further, that observational and interventional research should more effectively address the intersections of rurality and race/ethnicity through reduced structural and interpersonal biases in cancer care, increased data access, more research on newer cancer screening and treatment modalities, and continued intervention and implementation research to understand how evidence-based practices can most effectively reduce disparities among these populations. View Full-Text
Keywords: rural; racial/ethnic minorities; cancer disparities; access to care; social determinants of health; cancer surveillance; cancer outcomes rural; racial/ethnic minorities; cancer disparities; access to care; social determinants of health; cancer surveillance; cancer outcomes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zahnd, W.E.; Murphy, C.; Knoll, M.; Benavidez, G.A.; Day, K.R.; Ranganathan, R.; Luke, P.; Zgodic, A.; Shi, K.; Merrell, M.A.; Crouch, E.L.; Brandt, H.M.; Eberth, J.M. The Intersection of Rural Residence and Minority Race/Ethnicity in Cancer Disparities in the United States. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1384. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041384

AMA Style

Zahnd WE, Murphy C, Knoll M, Benavidez GA, Day KR, Ranganathan R, Luke P, Zgodic A, Shi K, Merrell MA, Crouch EL, Brandt HM, Eberth JM. The Intersection of Rural Residence and Minority Race/Ethnicity in Cancer Disparities in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1384. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041384

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zahnd, Whitney E., Cathryn Murphy, Marie Knoll, Gabriel A. Benavidez, Kelsey R. Day, Radhika Ranganathan, Parthenia Luke, Anja Zgodic, Kewei Shi, Melinda A. Merrell, Elizabeth L. Crouch, Heather M. Brandt, and Jan M. Eberth 2021. "The Intersection of Rural Residence and Minority Race/Ethnicity in Cancer Disparities in the United States" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1384. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18041384

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