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The Independent Role of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Severity of Depressive Symptoms on Biological Changes of Women Affected by Overweight/Obesity

1
EPIGET LAB, Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Via San Barnaba 8, 20122 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy
3
Occupational Health Unit, Center of Obesity and Work EASO Collaborating Centers for Obesity Management, Fondazione Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy
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Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCSS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Via Francesco Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy
5
Department of Mental Health, ASST Rhodense, 20024 Rho, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The members of the Stand-Up Project Group are acknowledged at the end of the article.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 2923; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062923
Received: 13 February 2021 / Revised: 6 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 12 March 2021
Background: Both obesity and depression are medical conditions associated with severe disability and biological abnormalities. Our aim was to study associations between Body Mass Index (BMI), depression and biological changes in women affected by overweight or obesity. Methods: Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) questionnaire in 200 women affected by overweight/obesity (mean age of the sample 52.7 ± 12.9 years, BMI 33.8 ± 5.5 kg/m2). A blood sample was obtained for evaluation of biochemical (oxytocin and vitamin D), inflammatory and epigenetic (methylation of clock genes) parameters. Multivariable linear regression models were used to study the association between BMI or severity of depressive symptoms (BDI-II scores) with different biomarkers. Results: BMI was found to be associated with severity of depressive symptoms (p = 0.050). Severity of obesity resulted to be associated with lower plasma levels of oxytocin (p = 0.053), vitamin D deficiency (p = 0.006) and higher plasma levels of IFN-γ (p = 0.004), IL-6 (p = 0.013), IL-7 (p = 0.013), TNF-alpha (p = 0.036) and chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3) (p = 0.013, R2 = 0.03). Severity of depression was significantly associated with more methylation of clock genes CRY1 (p = 0.034, R2 = 0.16) and CRY2 (p = 0.019, R2 = 0.47). More severe depression together with higher levels of IL-8 strongly predicted lower methylation of CLOCK gene (p = 0.009); Conclusions: Different biological abnormalities have been found to be independently associated with BMI and severity of depressive symptoms in women affected by overweight/obesity. The complex interplay between overweight, depression and biological changes will have to be better clarified by future studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: depression; inflammation; hormones; clock genes; interleukins; gender depression; inflammation; hormones; clock genes; interleukins; gender
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iodice, S.; Ceresa, A.; Esposito, C.M.; Mucci, F.; Conti, D.M.; Pergoli, L.; Tarantini, L.; Vigna, L.; Bollati, V.; Buoli, M.; Serati, M.; Stand-Up Project Group. The Independent Role of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Severity of Depressive Symptoms on Biological Changes of Women Affected by Overweight/Obesity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2923. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062923

AMA Style

Iodice S, Ceresa A, Esposito CM, Mucci F, Conti DM, Pergoli L, Tarantini L, Vigna L, Bollati V, Buoli M, Serati M, Stand-Up Project Group. The Independent Role of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Severity of Depressive Symptoms on Biological Changes of Women Affected by Overweight/Obesity. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(6):2923. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062923

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iodice, Simona, Alessandro Ceresa, Cecilia M. Esposito, Francesco Mucci, Diana M. Conti, Laura Pergoli, Letizia Tarantini, Luisella Vigna, Valentina Bollati, Massimiliano Buoli, Marta Serati, and Stand-Up Project Group. 2021. "The Independent Role of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Severity of Depressive Symptoms on Biological Changes of Women Affected by Overweight/Obesity" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 6: 2923. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18062923

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