Next Issue
Volume 12, June
Previous Issue
Volume 11, December

Microbiol. Res., Volume 12, Issue 1 (March 2021) – 17 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Review
Antilisterial Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Eliminating Listeria monocytogenes in Host and Ready-to-Eat Food Application
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 234-257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010017 - 18 Mar 2021
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Listeriosis is a severe food borne disease with a mortality rate of up to 30% caused by pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes via the production of several virulence factors including listeriolysin O (LLO), transcriptional activator (PrfA), actin (Act), internalin (Int), etc. It is a foodborne [...] Read more.
Listeriosis is a severe food borne disease with a mortality rate of up to 30% caused by pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes via the production of several virulence factors including listeriolysin O (LLO), transcriptional activator (PrfA), actin (Act), internalin (Int), etc. It is a foodborne disease predominantly causing infections through consumption of contaminated food and is often associated with ready-to-eat food (RTE) and dairy products. Common medication for listeriosis such as antibiotics might cause an eagle effect and antibiotic resistance if it is overused. Therefore, exploration of the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic characteristics and multiple antimicrobial properties is increasingly getting attention for their capability to treat listeriosis, vaccine development, and hurdle technologies. The antilisterial gene, a gene coding to produce antimicrobial peptide (AMP), one of the inhibitory substances found in LAB, is one of the potential key factors in listeriosis treatment, coupled with the vast array of functions and strategies; this review summarizes the various strategies by LAB against L. monocytogenes and the prospect in development of a ‘generally regarded as safe’ LAB for treatment of listeriosis. Full article
Article
In-Silico Pangenomics of SARS-CoV-2 Isolates Reveal Evidence for Subtle Adaptive Expression Strategies, Continued Clonal Evolution, and Sub-Clonal Emergences, Despite Genome Stability
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 204-233; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010016 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 509
Abstract
The devastating SARS-CoV2 pandemic is worsening with relapsing surges, emerging mutants, and increasing mortalities. Despite enormous efforts, it is not clear how SARS-CoV2 adapts and evolves in a clonal background. Laboratory research is hindered by high biosafety demands. However, the rapid sequence availability [...] Read more.
The devastating SARS-CoV2 pandemic is worsening with relapsing surges, emerging mutants, and increasing mortalities. Despite enormous efforts, it is not clear how SARS-CoV2 adapts and evolves in a clonal background. Laboratory research is hindered by high biosafety demands. However, the rapid sequence availability opened doors for bioinformatics. Using different bioinformatics programs, we investigated 6305 sequences for clonality, expressions strategies, and evolutionary dynamics. Results showed high nucleotide identity of 99.9% among SARS-CoV2 indicating clonal evolution and genome. High sequence identity and phylogenetic tree concordance were obtained with isolates from different regions. In any given tree topology, ~50% of isolates in a country formed country-specific sub-clusters. However, abundances of subtle overexpression strategies were found including transversions, signature-sequences and slippery-structures. Five different short tracks dominated with identical location patterns in all genomes where Slippery-4 AAGAA was the most abundant. Interestingly, transversion and transition substitutions mostly affected the same amino acid residues implying compensatory changes. To ensure these strategies were independent of sequence clonality, we simultaneously examined sequence homology indicators; tandem-repeats, restriction-site, and 3′UTR, 5′ UTR-caps and stem-loop locations in addition to stringent alignment parameters for 100% identity which all confirmed stability. Nevertheless, two rare events; a rearrangement in two SARS-CoV2 isolates against betacoronavirus ancestor and a polymorphism in S gene, were detected. Thus, we report on abundance of transversions, slippery sequences, and ON/OFF molecular structures, implying adaptive expressions had occurred, despite clonal evolution and genome stability. Furthermore, functional validation of the point mutations would provide insights into mechanisms of SARS-CoV2 virulence and adaptation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Protocol
Protocol for the pBDG2 Study: Prospective Evaluation of 1.3-β-D-Glucan in the Peritoneal Fluid for the Diagnosis of Intra-Abdominal Candidiasis in Critically Ill Patients
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 196-203; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010015 - 17 Mar 2021
Viewed by 408
Abstract
Background: The delayed diagnosis of the presence of Candida in severe intra-abdominal infections exposes patients to an increased risk of mortality. The prevalence of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) varies with the type of intra-abdominal infection, the underlying conditions and the presence of risk factors [...] Read more.
Background: The delayed diagnosis of the presence of Candida in severe intra-abdominal infections exposes patients to an increased risk of mortality. The prevalence of intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) varies with the type of intra-abdominal infection, the underlying conditions and the presence of risk factors for Candida infection. This study aims to evaluate the interest of the measure of 1.3-β-D-glucan (BDG) in the peritoneal fluid for the early diagnosis of IAC. Methods and analysis: This is a prospective multicenter (n = 5) non-interventional study, focusing on all critically ill patients with an intra-abdominal infection requiring intra-abdominal surgery. The primary objective is to assess the diagnostic performance of the BDG measured in the peritoneal fluid for the early detection of IAC using the Candida culture as the gold standard. The secondary objective is to report the prevalence of IAC in the selected population. This study aims to enroll 200 patients within 48 months. By estimating the prevalence of IAC in the selected population at 30%, 50 patients with IAC (cases) are expected. These 50 IAC cases will be matched with 50 non-IAC patients (as a control group). The peritoneal BDG will be measured a posteriori in all of these 100 selected patients. This article presents the protocol and the current status of the study. Only the prevalence of IAC is reported as preliminary result. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Small Noncoding RNAs MTS0997 and MTS1338 Affect the Adaptation and Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 186-195; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010014 - 15 Mar 2021
Viewed by 479
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the leading cause of death among bacterial infectious diseases. The spectrum of disease manifestations depends on both host immune responses and the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist it. Small non-coding RNAs are known to regulate gene expression; however, [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the leading cause of death among bacterial infectious diseases. The spectrum of disease manifestations depends on both host immune responses and the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to resist it. Small non-coding RNAs are known to regulate gene expression; however, their functional role in the relationship of M. tuberculosis with the host is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effect of small non-coding sRNAs MTS1338 and MTS0997 on M. tuberculosis properties by creating knockout strains. We also assessed the effect of small non-coding RNAs on the survival of wild type and mutant mycobacteria in primary cultures of human alveolar macrophages and the virulence of these strains in a mouse infection model. Wild-type and mutants survived differentially in human alveolar macrophages. Infection of I/St mice with KO M. tuberculosis H37RV strains provided beneficial effects onto major TB phenotypes. We observed attenuated tuberculosis-specific inflammatory responses, including reduced cellular infiltration and decreased granuloma formation in the lungs. Infections caused by KO strains were characterized by significantly lower inflammation of mouse lung tissue and increased survival time of infected animals. Thus, the deletion of MTS0997 and MTS1338 lead to a significant decrease in the virulence of M. tuberculosis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Looking for Solutions to the Pitfalls of Developing Novel Antibacterials in an Economically Challenging System
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 173-185; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010013 - 10 Mar 2021
Viewed by 752
Abstract
The increase in antibacterial resistance (ABR) currently equates in the minds of many with the distant fear that certain antibiotics will not work in 30 years on certain bacteria found in places the majority of us never go to. However, in reality, rising [...] Read more.
The increase in antibacterial resistance (ABR) currently equates in the minds of many with the distant fear that certain antibiotics will not work in 30 years on certain bacteria found in places the majority of us never go to. However, in reality, rising ABR already seriously threatens the effectiveness of compounds with which we treat common bacterial infections, which means that ABR is currently and will continue to undermine the foundations of modern medicine, including surgery and cancer treatment in hospitals, cities and countries across the world. That is why ABR is widely considered a global threat and one of the biggest problems of our current civilization. Conversely, antibiotic developments to market are few. Therefore, in this paper, we have illustrated the barriers to antimicrobial R&D the following questions and provided solutions to effective antimicrobial R&D. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Soil Bacterial Community Diversity and Composition as Affected by Tillage Intensity Treatments in Corn-Soybean Production Systems
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 157-172; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010012 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Our understanding on the effects of tillage intensity on the soil microbial community structure and composition in crop production systems are limited. This study evaluated the soil microbial community composition and diversity under different tillage management systems in an effort to identify management [...] Read more.
Our understanding on the effects of tillage intensity on the soil microbial community structure and composition in crop production systems are limited. This study evaluated the soil microbial community composition and diversity under different tillage management systems in an effort to identify management practices that effectively support sustainable agriculture. We report results from a three-year study to determine the effects on changes in soil microbial diversity and composition from four tillage intensity treatments and two residue management treatments in a corn-soybean production system using Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Soil samples were collected from tillage treatments at locations in the Southern Coastal Plain (Verona, MS, USA) and Southern Mississippi River Alluvium (Stoneville, MS, USA) for soil analysis and bacterial community characterization. Our results indicated that different tillage intensity treatments differentially changed the relative abundances of bacterial phyla. The Mantel test of correlations indicated that differences among bacterial community composition were significantly influenced by tillage regime (rM = 0.39, p ≤ 0.0001). Simpson’s reciprocal diversity index indicated greater bacterial diversity with reduction in tillage intensity for each year and study location. For both study sites, differences in tillage intensity had significant influence on the abundance of Proteobacteria. The shift in the soil bacterial community composition under different tillage systems was strongly correlated to changes in labile carbon pool in the system and how it affected the microbial metabolism. This study indicates that soil management through tillage intensity regime had a profound influence on diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities in a corn-soybean production system. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Epstein–Barr Virus (EBV) Viral Load in Tumor Cells Did Not Predict Tumor Extensiveness in Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 150-156; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010011 - 05 Mar 2021
Viewed by 440
Abstract
Background: Nasopharyngeal cancer is commonly associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection, especially undifferentiated non-keratinized histology. EBV DNA quantification through nasopharyngeal brushing was previously reported to be not related to disease stage. This study aimed to reinvestigate the relationship of EBV viral load in [...] Read more.
Background: Nasopharyngeal cancer is commonly associated with Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection, especially undifferentiated non-keratinized histology. EBV DNA quantification through nasopharyngeal brushing was previously reported to be not related to disease stage. This study aimed to reinvestigate the relationship of EBV viral load in tumor tissue with tumor extensiveness by more accurate EBV DNA quantification through microscopically confirmed tumor cells from nasopharyngeal biopsy. Method: The specimens for EBV DNA quantification were derived from histopathology slides which were pre-treated following the QIAsymphony® SP protocol for tissue DNA extraction. Then, the extracted DNA underwent real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the artus® EBV RG PCR Kit for EBV DNA quantification. The tumor volume was determined by delineating the gross tumor based on 3D imaging of the patient’s nasopharynx. Result: Twenty-four subjects were included in this study. All subjects were stage III and above, with more males (75%) than females. EBV viral load in tumor cells was found to have no correlation to tumor volume both in local and nodal regions. The median local tumor volume was 81.3 cm3 ± 80 cm3. The median EBV viral load in tumor cells was 95,644.8 ± 224,758.4 copies/100 ng of DNA. The median nodal or regional tumor volume was 35.7 ± 73.63 cm3. Conclusion: EBV viral load from tumor cells from nasopharyngeal biopsy has no relationship with tumor extensiveness in nasopharyngeal cancer. The presence and amount of EBV in tumor cells did not translate into larger or smaller tumors. The EBV viral proteins and RNAs were perhaps more likely to confer some prognostic information due to the fact that those molecules were related to carcinogenesis. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Genomic Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in Libya
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 138-149; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010010 - 03 Mar 2021
Viewed by 6575
Abstract
The COVID-19 epidemic started in Libya in March 2020 and rapidly spread. To shed some light on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains circulating in Libya, viruses isolated from 10 patients in this country were sequenced, characterized at the genomic level, [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 epidemic started in Libya in March 2020 and rapidly spread. To shed some light on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) strains circulating in Libya, viruses isolated from 10 patients in this country were sequenced, characterized at the genomic level, and compared to genomes isolated in other parts of the world. As nine genomes out of 10 belonged to the SS1 cluster and one to SS4, three datasets were built. One included only African strains and the other two contained internationally representative SS1 and SS4 genomes. Genomic analysis showed that the Libyan strains have some peculiar features in addition to those reported in other world regions. Considering the countries in which the strains are genetically more similar to the Libyan strains, SARS-CoV-2 could have entered Libya from a North African country (possibly Egypt), sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Ghana, Mali, Nigeria), the Middle East (e.g., Saudi Arabia), or Asia (India, Bangladesh). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Brief Report
Multidrug Resistance Dissemination in Escherichia coli Isolated from Wild Animals: Bacterial Clones and Plasmid Complicity
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 123-137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010009 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 521
Abstract
Objectives. Epidemiological data concerning third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistance in wild fauna are scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the resistance genes, their genetic context, and clonal relatedness in 17 Escherichia coli resistant to 3GC isolated from wild animals. Methods. The [...] Read more.
Objectives. Epidemiological data concerning third-generation cephalosporin (3GC) resistance in wild fauna are scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize the resistance genes, their genetic context, and clonal relatedness in 17 Escherichia coli resistant to 3GC isolated from wild animals. Methods. The isolates were characterized by short-read whole genome sequencing, and long-read sequencing was used for the hybrid assembly of plasmid sequences. Results. The 3GC resistance gene most identified in the isolates was the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL)-encoding gene blaCTX-M-1 (82.3%), followed by blaCTX-M-32 (5.9%), blaCTX-M-14 (5.9%), and blaSHV-12 (5.9%). E. coli isolates mainly belonged to the sequence types (STs) rarely reported from humans. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based typing showed that most E. coli genomes from wild animals (wild boars, birds of prey, and buzzards) formed clonal clusters (<5 SNPs), showing a clonal dissemination crossing species boundaries. blaCTX-M-1-harboring IncI1-ST3 plasmid was the predominant ESBL-encoding plasmid (76.4%) in wild animal isolates. Plasmid comparison revealed a 110-kb self-transferable plasmid consisting of a conserved backbone and two variable regions involved in antimicrobial resistance and in interaction with recipient cells during conjugation. Conclusion. Our results highlighted the unexpected clonal dissemination of blaCTX-M-1-encoding clones and the complicity of IncI1-ST3 plasmid in the spread of blaCTX-M-1 within wild fauna. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Elucidating the Relations between Gut Bacterial Composition and the Plasma and Fecal Metabolomes of Antibiotic Treated Wistar Rats
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 82-122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010008 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 595
Abstract
The gut microbiome is vital to the health and development of an organism, specifically in determining the host response to a chemical (drug) administration. To understand this, we investigated the effects of six antibiotic (AB) treatments (Streptomycin sulfate, Roxithromycin, Sparfloxacin, Vancomycin, Clindamycin and [...] Read more.
The gut microbiome is vital to the health and development of an organism, specifically in determining the host response to a chemical (drug) administration. To understand this, we investigated the effects of six antibiotic (AB) treatments (Streptomycin sulfate, Roxithromycin, Sparfloxacin, Vancomycin, Clindamycin and Lincomycin hydrochloride) and diet restriction (–20%) on the gut microbiota in 28-day oral toxicity studies on Wistar rats. The fecal microbiota was determined using 16S rDNA marker gene sequencing. AB-class specific alterations were observed in the bacterial composition, whereas restriction in diet caused no observable difference. These changes associated well with the changes in the LC–MS/MS- and GC–MS-based metabolome profiles, particularly of feces and to a lesser extent of plasma. Particularly strong and AB-specific metabolic alterations were observed for bile acids in both plasma and feces matrices. Although AB-group-specific plasma metabolome changes were observed, weaker associations between fecal and plasma metabolome suggest a profound barrier between them. Numerous correlations between the bacterial families and the fecal metabolites were established, providing a holistic overview of the gut microbial functionality. Strong correlations were observed between microbiota and bile acids, lipids and fatty acids, amino acids and related metabolites. These microbiome–metabolome correlations promote understanding of the functionality of the microbiome for its host. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Effect of Quercetin on Mycorrhizal Synthesis between Tuberborchii and Arbutusunedo L. In Vitro Plants
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 69-81; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010007 - 23 Feb 2021
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Arbutus unedo L. is a Mediterranean species used for fruit production; it is tolerant to drought and shows regeneration ability following forest fires. Mycorrhizal plants with Tuber borchii add resilience and value. This study aims to test the effect of quercetin on mycorrhizal [...] Read more.
Arbutus unedo L. is a Mediterranean species used for fruit production; it is tolerant to drought and shows regeneration ability following forest fires. Mycorrhizal plants with Tuber borchii add resilience and value. This study aims to test the effect of quercetin on mycorrhizal synthesis between T. borchii and A. unedo. Two genotypes selected for fruit production and hydric stress tolerance, were micropropagated for mycorrhizal synthesis, accomplished during ex vitro rooting in perlite, using lyophilized spores of T. borchii suspended in culture media with different quercetin levels (0–10 µM). Six months after inoculation, plants were transferred to pots and maintained in nursery. Ten and 12 months after inoculation, roots were morphological examined and molecularly characterized using ITS1-5.8SITS2 rDNA region and specific primers. Results showed that mycorrhizae establishment was dependent on studied factors (genotype, quercetin level, and culture medium) and their interaction (genotype X culture medium). Quercetin levels up to 2.0 µM favored mycorrhizae establishment and plant growth, although levels superior to 4 µM showed a toxic effect. Quercetin showed to be an efficient factor on inducing mycorrhiza thriving independent of the genotype. Morphological observations and molecular analysis confirmed the permanence of the fungus association 10 and 12 months after inoculation. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review
Food Safety Concerns in “COVID-19 Era”
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 53-68; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010006 - 12 Feb 2021
Viewed by 1441
Abstract
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the COVID-19 outbreak can be characterized as a pandemic. Human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus may initially be blamed as the first cause of spread, but can an infection be contracted by ingestion [...] Read more.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared that the COVID-19 outbreak can be characterized as a pandemic. Human-to-human transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus may initially be blamed as the first cause of spread, but can an infection be contracted by ingestion of contaminated food or touching contaminated food surfaces? Recently cold-chain food contamination has been indicated as a possible source of many human cases in China. However, the risk of a food-related COVID-19 infection is still debated since the virus may reach people through a fresh product or packaging, which have been touched/sneezed on by infected people. This review summarizes the most recent evidence on the zoonotic origin of the pandemic, reports the main results regarding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through food or a food chain, as well as the persistence of the virus at different environmental conditions and surfaces. Emphasis is also posed on how to manage the risk of food-related COVID-19 spread and potential approaches that can reduce the risk of SARS-CoV-2 contamination. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Brief Report
Large-Scale Staphylococcus aureus Foodborne Disease Poisoning Outbreak among Primary School Children
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 43-52; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010005 - 11 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 484
Abstract
A large-scale food poisoning outbreak happened at a school canteen in Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam, in 2018, resulting in the hospitalization of 352 students with clinical symptoms indicative of a staphylococcal food poisoning. A subsequent laboratory investigation detected Staphylococcus aureus in two food [...] Read more.
A large-scale food poisoning outbreak happened at a school canteen in Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam, in 2018, resulting in the hospitalization of 352 students with clinical symptoms indicative of a staphylococcal food poisoning. A subsequent laboratory investigation detected Staphylococcus aureus in two food items—deep-fried shrimp and chicken floss—at up to 103 CFU/mL, and staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) in chicken floss at ≥0.211 ng SEs/g. S. aureus was also isolated from patients’ vomit and stool samples, and kitchen workers’ stool samples, as well as in frozen chicken meat, but not on the kitchen workers’ hand surfaces, suggesting the cause of this food poisoning outbreak was S. aureus contamination of the chicken meat. Molecular characterization revealed the S. aureus strains isolated from all samples were closely related; all belonged to sequence type (ST) ST6 and spa type t701 and carried both sea and sec genes. This SE-producing strain was resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, while still susceptible to oxacillin, erythromycin, gentamicin, methicillin, and vancomycin. Since S. aureus food poisonings are often underreported, our investigation added to the sparse qualitative and quantitative data of pathogenic S. aureus monitoring and surveillance in Vietnam, providing needed knowledge to guide preventative measures for future outbreaks. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Negativibacillus massiliensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a New Bacterial Genus Isolated from a Human Left Colon Sample
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 29-42; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010004 - 09 Feb 2021
Viewed by 584
Abstract
A new genus, a member of the Ruminococcaceae family, was isolated from the left colon of a healthy woman. Strain Marseille P3213 was a non-motile, spore-forming, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped bacterium. This strictly anaerobic species reached optimal growth after an incubation of 72 h [...] Read more.
A new genus, a member of the Ruminococcaceae family, was isolated from the left colon of a healthy woman. Strain Marseille P3213 was a non-motile, spore-forming, Gram-stain negative, rod-shaped bacterium. This strictly anaerobic species reached optimal growth after an incubation of 72 h at 37 °C. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this strain shared a 93.52% similarity level with Harryflintia acetispora strain V20-281a, its closest phylogenetic neighbor with standing in the nomenclature. Its genome had a size of 2.87 Mb, with a 45.81% G + C content. We hereby propose the creation of Negativibacillus massiliensis strain P3213T as the 43rd genus within the Ruminococcaceae family. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Studying of Cultural Properties of Pyricularia oryzae Cav. Strains in the South of Russia
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 21-28; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010003 - 18 Jan 2021
Viewed by 526
Abstract
This article presents the results of the development of a methodology for describing the main morphological and cultural traits of the Pyricularia oryzae Cav. strains widespread in the south of Russia. At the same time, the types of traits are identified and listed, [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of the development of a methodology for describing the main morphological and cultural traits of the Pyricularia oryzae Cav. strains widespread in the south of Russia. At the same time, the types of traits are identified and listed, which make it possible to unambiguously determine the uniqueness and variety of the pathogen. The relationships and patterns established using cluster and statistical analysis make it possible to identify the conditions for the development of a pathogen that determine its predominant forms. Thus, research shows that leaf forms of P. oryzae strains isolated from rice plants with leaf form of blast disease have an equally directional growth pattern of a colony with a felt structure, and strains isolated from neck-affected plant form often produce a zone of a colony with a clumpy structure. The classification of cultural traits will make it possible to obtain scientifically grounded and comparable data that can be used in the analysis of the interaction of P. oryzae strains with rice plants on various varieties and in various agro-technological conditions in order to improve and rationalize agricultural activities. The study opens up the possibility of using data in breeding, making it possible to identify forms of a pathogen that infect certain varieties. Full article
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Spectral and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogens Isolated from Saudi Patients with Diabetic Foot Infections
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 16-20; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010002 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 658
Abstract
Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a significant health issue and a common complication among patients with diabetes. To develop antibiotic therapy for these high-risk patients, the current study evaluates the scope of DFIs and identifies the causing microbes. It also measures spectrum and [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are a significant health issue and a common complication among patients with diabetes. To develop antibiotic therapy for these high-risk patients, the current study evaluates the scope of DFIs and identifies the causing microbes. It also measures spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility of the pathogens isolated from adults with DFIs in Saudi Arabia. To achieve the study objectives, a cross-sectional study was implemented and the baseline characteristics for 44 patients with DFIs were defined. Optimal aerobic and anaerobic microbiological techniques were utilized to culture specimens isolated from infected foot ulcers. The standard microbiological methods were employed to identify the bacterial isolates and antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted following the procedures of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results showed that 12 microorganisms were isolated from the participants’ diabetic foot ulcers. Staphylococcus Aureus was ranked first because it appeared in 29 (65.9%) cases. Streptococcus Agalactiae was ranked second and multi-microbial infections were also found. Most of the organisms were susceptible to Vancomycin, Ciprofloxacin, and Cefalexin, but they were resistant to Methicillin, Gentamicin, and Ampicillin antibiotics. Staphylococcus Aureus was most sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, while it was resistant to Methicillin. About 10% of the isolates were multidrug-resistant. The study concludes that while Vancomycin should be used empirically for Gram-positive isolates, Ciprofloxacin can be taken into consideration for most of the Gram-negatives aerobes. Based on including various microorganisms and the advent of multidrug-resistant strains, proper culture and sensitivity testing are necessary prior to the empirical therapy. Full article
Article
Acetyleugenol from Acacia nilotica (L.) Exhibits a Strong Antibacterial Activity and Its Phenyl and Indole Analogues Show a Promising Anti-TB Potential Targeting PknE/B Protein Kinases
Microbiol. Res. 2021, 12(1), 1-15; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microbiolres12010001 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 885
Abstract
Acetyleugenol is a phytochemical compound with broad effects against infectious diseases and tumors. Here, we extracted, characterized, and elucidated the structure of acetyeugenol, for the first time, from the leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.)—a well-known medicinal plant. The broad antibacterial potential of acetyleugenol [...] Read more.
Acetyleugenol is a phytochemical compound with broad effects against infectious diseases and tumors. Here, we extracted, characterized, and elucidated the structure of acetyeugenol, for the first time, from the leaves of Acacia nilotica (L.)—a well-known medicinal plant. The broad antibacterial potential of acetyleugenol was first confirmed against seven bacterial clinical isolates, which reveal a strong activity against Proteus sp., Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia with similar or better zone of inhibition comparing to that of the control amoxicillin. To further investigate its effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, acetyleugenol and its indole and phenyl analogues were subjected to molecular docking experiments against two potential tuberculosis drug targets—MtPknE and MtPknB Ser/Thr protein kinases. The results reveal that all of the analogs have improved docking scores compared to the acetyleugenol. The indole analogues EUG-1 and EUG-3 were more effective with better docking scores for MtPknE with −11.08 and −10.05 kcal/mol, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the MtPknB. In contrast, only the EUG-2 phenyl analogue has given rise to similar docking scores for both targets. This opens the door for further comprehensive studies on these acetyleugenol analogues with in vitro and in vivo experiments to validate and get more insights into their mechanisms of action. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop