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Article

Examples of Multi-Sensor Determination of Eruptive Source Parameters of Explosive Events at Mount Etna

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Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
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Centro Nazionale Terremoti (CNT), Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), 00143 Rome, Italy
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Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Université Clermont-Auvergne, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
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Department of Earth Sciences, University of Firenze, 50124 Firenze, Italy
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Department of Information Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Rome, Italy
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Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, 67100 L’Aquila, Italy
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Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, 95125 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Gomez-Ortiz
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(11), 2097; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13112097
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 22 May 2021 / Accepted: 23 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
Multi-sensor strategies are key to the real-time determination of eruptive source parameters (ESPs) of explosive eruptions necessary to forecast accurately both tephra dispersal and deposition. To explore the capacity of these strategies in various eruptive conditions, we analyze data acquired by two Doppler radars, ground- and satellite-based infrared sensors, one infrasound array, visible video-monitoring cameras as well as data from tephra-fallout deposits associated with a weak and a strong paroxysmal event at Mount Etna (Italy). We find that the different sensors provide complementary observations that should be critically analyzed and combined to provide comprehensive estimates of ESPs. First, all measurements of plume height agree during the strong paroxysmal activity considered, whereas some discrepancies are found for the weak paroxysm due to rapid plume and cloud dilution. Second, the event duration, key to convert the total erupted mass (TEM) in the mass eruption rate (MER) and vice versa, varies depending on the sensor used, providing information on different phases of the paroxysm (i.e., unsteady lava fountaining, lava fountain-fed tephra plume, waning phase associated with plume and cloud expansion in the atmosphere). As a result, TEM and MER derived from different sensors also correspond to the different phases of the paroxysms. Finally, satellite retrievals for grain-size can be combined with radar data to provide a first approximation of total grain-size distribution (TGSD) in near real-time. Such a TGSD shows a promising agreement with the TGSD derived from the combination of satellite data and whole deposit grain-size distribution (WDGSD). View Full-Text
Keywords: tephra; remote sensing; plume height; mass eruption rate; total erupted mass; total grain-size distribution tephra; remote sensing; plume height; mass eruption rate; total erupted mass; total grain-size distribution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Freret-Lorgeril, V.; Bonadonna, C.; Corradini, S.; Donnadieu, F.; Guerrieri, L.; Lacanna, G.; Marzano, F.S.; Mereu, L.; Merucci, L.; Ripepe, M.; Scollo, S.; Stelitano, D. Examples of Multi-Sensor Determination of Eruptive Source Parameters of Explosive Events at Mount Etna. Remote Sens. 2021, 13, 2097. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13112097

AMA Style

Freret-Lorgeril V, Bonadonna C, Corradini S, Donnadieu F, Guerrieri L, Lacanna G, Marzano FS, Mereu L, Merucci L, Ripepe M, Scollo S, Stelitano D. Examples of Multi-Sensor Determination of Eruptive Source Parameters of Explosive Events at Mount Etna. Remote Sensing. 2021; 13(11):2097. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13112097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Freret-Lorgeril, Valentin, Costanza Bonadonna, Stefano Corradini, Franck Donnadieu, Lorenzo Guerrieri, Giorgio Lacanna, Frank S. Marzano, Luigi Mereu, Luca Merucci, Maurizio Ripepe, Simona Scollo, and Dario Stelitano. 2021. "Examples of Multi-Sensor Determination of Eruptive Source Parameters of Explosive Events at Mount Etna" Remote Sensing 13, no. 11: 2097. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/rs13112097

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