Little is known about changes in plasma metabolome profiles during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in Chinese. We aimed to characterize plasma metabolomic profiles at 0 and 2 h of OGTT and their changes in individuals of different glycemic statuses. A total of 544 metabolites were detected at 0 and 2 h of OGTT by a nontarget strategy in subjects with normal glucose (n
= 234), prediabetes (n
= 281), and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D) (n
= 66). Regression model, mixed model, and partial least squares discrimination analysis were applied. Compared with subjects of normal glucose, T2D cases had significantly higher levels of glycerone at 0 h and 22 metabolites at 2 h of OGTT (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05, variable importance in projection (VIP) > 1). Seven of the twenty-two metabolites were also significantly higher in T2D than in prediabetes subjects at 2 h of OGTT (FDR < 0.05, VIP > 1). Two hours after glucose challenge, concentrations of 35 metabolites (normal: 18; prediabetes: 23; T2D: 13) significantly increased (FDR < 0.05, VIP > 1, fold change (FC) > 1.2), whereas those of 45 metabolites (normal: 36; prediabetes: 29; T2D: 18) significantly decreased (FDR < 0.05, VIP > 1, FC < 0.8). Distinct responses between cases and noncases were detected in metabolites including 4-imidazolone-5-acetate and 4-methylene-L-glutamine. More varieties of distinct metabolites across glycemic statuses were observed at 2 h of OGTT compared with fasting state. Whether the different patterns and responsiveness of certain metabolites in T2D reflect a poor resilience of specific metabolic pathways in regaining glucose homeostasis merits further study.
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