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Article

Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis curtus) from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 23 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
The venom proteome of Hydrophis curtus (synonym: Lapemis hardwickii) from Penang, Malaysia was investigated with nano-electrospray ionization-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-LCMS/MS) of the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) venom fractions. Thirty distinct protein forms were identified as toxins from ten families. The three major protein families were phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 62.0% of total venom proteins), three-finger toxin (3FTX, 26.33%) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP, 9.00%). PLA2 comprises diverse homologues (11 forms), predominantly the acidic subtypes (48.26%). 3FTX composed of one short alpha-neurotoxin (SNTX, 22.89%) and four long alpha-neurotoxins (LNTX, 3.44%). Both SNTX and LNTX were lethal in mice (intravenous LD50 = 0.10 and 0.24 μg/g, respectively) but the PLA2 were non-lethal (LD50 >1 μg/g). The more abundant and toxic SNTX appeared to be the main driver of venom lethality (holovenom LD50 = 0.20 μg/g). The heterologous Sea Snake Antivenom (SSAV, Australia) effectively cross-neutralized the venom (normalized potency = 9.35 mg venom neutralized per g antivenom) and the two neurotoxins in vivo, with the LNTX being neutralized more effectively (normalized potency = 3.5 mg toxin/g antivenom) than SNTX (normalized potency = 1.57 mg/g). SSAV immunorecognition was strong toward PLA2 but moderate-to-weak toward the alpha-neurotoxins, indicating that neutralization of the alpha-neurotoxins should be further improved. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lapemis hardwickii; immunoreactivity; alpha-neurotoxins; three-finger toxins; phospholipase A2; envenomation; neutralization Lapemis hardwickii; immunoreactivity; alpha-neurotoxins; three-finger toxins; phospholipase A2; envenomation; neutralization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, C.H.; Tan, K.Y.; Ng, T.S.; Sim, S.M.; Tan, N.H. Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis curtus) from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom. Toxins 2019, 11, 3. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11010003

AMA Style

Tan CH, Tan KY, Ng TS, Sim SM, Tan NH. Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis curtus) from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom. Toxins. 2019; 11(1):3. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Choo H., Kae Y. Tan, Tzu S. Ng, Si M. Sim, and Nget H. Tan. 2019. "Venom Proteome of Spine-Bellied Sea Snake (Hydrophis curtus) from Penang, Malaysia: Toxicity Correlation, Immunoprofiling and Cross-Neutralization by Sea Snake Antivenom" Toxins 11, no. 1: 3. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11010003

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