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Article

Twenty-Eight Fungal Secondary Metabolites Detected in Pig Feed Samples: Their Occurrence, Relevance and Cytotoxic Effects In Vitro

1
BIOMIN Research Center, Technopark 1, 3430 Tulln, Austria
2
Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
3
Food Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 11, 1190 Vienna, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 14 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicological Effects of Mycotoxins on Target Cells)
Feed samples are frequently contaminated by a wide range of chemically diverse natural products, which can be determined using highly sensitive analytical techniques. Next to already well-investigated mycotoxins, unknown or unregulated fungal secondary metabolites have also been found, some of which at significant concentrations. In our study, 1141 pig feed samples were analyzed for more than 800 secondary fungal metabolites using the same LC-MS/MS method and ranked according to their prevalence. Effects on the viability of the 28 most relevant were tested on an intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The most frequently occurring compounds were determined as being cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Tyr), moniliformin, and enniatin B, followed by enniatin B1, aurofusarin, culmorin, and enniatin A1. The main mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, were found only at ranks 8 and 10. Regarding cytotoxicity, apicidin, gliotoxin, bikaverin, and beauvericin led to lower IC50 values, between 0.52 and 2.43 µM, compared to deoxynivalenol (IC50 = 2.55 µM). Significant cytotoxic effects were also seen for the group of enniatins, which occurred in up to 82.2% of the feed samples. Our study gives an overall insight into the amount of fungal secondary metabolites found in pig feed samples compared to their cytotoxic effects in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium; Aspergillus; Penicillium; Alternaria; fungi; emerging mycotoxin; in vitro; IPEC-J2; occurrence data Fusarium; Aspergillus; Penicillium; Alternaria; fungi; emerging mycotoxin; in vitro; IPEC-J2; occurrence data
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MDPI and ACS Style

Novak, B.; Rainer, V.; Sulyok, M.; Haltrich, D.; Schatzmayr, G.; Mayer, E. Twenty-Eight Fungal Secondary Metabolites Detected in Pig Feed Samples: Their Occurrence, Relevance and Cytotoxic Effects In Vitro. Toxins 2019, 11, 537. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11090537

AMA Style

Novak B, Rainer V, Sulyok M, Haltrich D, Schatzmayr G, Mayer E. Twenty-Eight Fungal Secondary Metabolites Detected in Pig Feed Samples: Their Occurrence, Relevance and Cytotoxic Effects In Vitro. Toxins. 2019; 11(9):537. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11090537

Chicago/Turabian Style

Novak, Barbara, Valentina Rainer, Michael Sulyok, Dietmar Haltrich, Gerd Schatzmayr, and Elisabeth Mayer. 2019. "Twenty-Eight Fungal Secondary Metabolites Detected in Pig Feed Samples: Their Occurrence, Relevance and Cytotoxic Effects In Vitro" Toxins 11, no. 9: 537. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins11090537

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