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Article

Removal of Small Kernels Reduces the Content of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Oat Grain

Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO), P.O.Box 115, N-1431 Ås, Norway
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2020 / Revised: 19 May 2020 / Accepted: 22 May 2020 / Published: 23 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Feed and Food Chain: Present Status and Future Concerns)
Cereal grain contaminated by Fusarium mycotoxins is undesirable in food and feed because of the harmful health effects of the mycotoxins in humans and animals. Reduction of mycotoxin content in grain by cleaning and size sorting has mainly been studied in wheat. We investigated whether the removal of small kernels by size sorting could be a method to reduce the content of mycotoxins in oat grain. Samples from 24 Norwegian mycotoxin-contaminated grain lots (14 from 2015 and 10 from 2018) were sorted by a laboratory sieve (sieve size 2.2 mm) into large and small kernel fractions and, in addition to unsorted grain samples, analyzed with LC-MS-MS for quantification of 10 mycotoxins. By removing the small kernel fraction (on average 15% and 21% of the weight of the samples from the two years, respectively), the mean concentrations of HT-2+T-2 toxins were reduced by 56% (from 745 to 328 µg/kg) in the 2015 samples and by 32% (from 178 to 121 µg/kg) in the 2018 samples. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was reduced by 24% (from 191 to 145 µg/kg) in the 2018 samples, and enniatin B (EnnB) by 44% (from 1059 to 594 µg/kg) in the 2015 samples. Despite low levels, our analyses showed a trend towards reduced content of DON, ADON, NIV, EnnA, EnnA1, EnnB1 and BEA after removing the small kernel fraction in samples from 2015. For several of the mycotoxins, the concentrations were considerably higher in the small kernel fraction compared to unsorted grain. Our results demonstrate that the level of mycotoxins in unprocessed oat grain can be reduced by removing small kernels. We assume that our study is the first report on the effect of size sorting on the content of enniatins (Enns), NIV and BEA in oat grains. View Full-Text
Keywords: T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; deoxynivalenol (DON); enniatin B (EnnB); size sorting; unprocessed cereals T-2 toxin; HT-2 toxin; deoxynivalenol (DON); enniatin B (EnnB); size sorting; unprocessed cereals
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MDPI and ACS Style

Brodal, G.; Aamot, H.U.; Almvik, M.; Hofgaard, I.S. Removal of Small Kernels Reduces the Content of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Oat Grain. Toxins 2020, 12, 346. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050346

AMA Style

Brodal G, Aamot HU, Almvik M, Hofgaard IS. Removal of Small Kernels Reduces the Content of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Oat Grain. Toxins. 2020; 12(5):346. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050346

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brodal, Guro, Heidi U. Aamot, Marit Almvik, and Ingerd S. Hofgaard 2020. "Removal of Small Kernels Reduces the Content of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Oat Grain" Toxins 12, no. 5: 346. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12050346

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