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Article

Anti-Biofilm Activity of the Fungal Phytotoxin Sphaeropsidin A against Clinical Isolates of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria

1
Dipartimento di Medicina Molecolare e Biotecnologie Mediche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia 4, 80126 Napoli, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Agraria, Sezione di Patologia Vegetale ed Entomologia, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale Italia 39, 07100 Sassari, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 2 July 2020 / Accepted: 6 July 2020 / Published: 8 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial and Plant Phytotoxins)
Many pathogens involved in human infection have rapidly increased their antibiotic resistance, reducing the effectiveness of therapies in recent decades. Most of them can form biofilms and effective drugs are not available to treat these formations. Natural products could represent an efficient solution in discovering and developing new drugs to overcome antimicrobial resistance and treat biofilm-related infections. In this study, 20 secondary metabolites produced by pathogenic fungi of forest plants and belonging to diverse classes of naturally occurring compounds were evaluated for the first time against clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. epi-Epoformin, sphaeropsidone, and sphaeropsidin A showed antimicrobial activity on all test strains. In particular, sphaeropsidin A was effective at low concentrations with Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values ranging from 6.25 μg/mL to 12.5 μg/mL against all reference and clinical test strains. Furthermore, sphaeropsidin A at sub-inhibitory concentrations decreased methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and P. aeruginosa biofilm formation, as quantified by crystal violet staining. Interestingly, mixtures of sphaeropsidin A and epi-epoformin have shown antimicrobial synergistic effects with a concomitant reduction of cytotoxicity against human immortalized keratinocytes. Our data show that sphaeropsidin A and epi-epoformin possess promising antimicrobial properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal secondary metabolites; toxins; biological activity; biofilm; antibiotic-resistance; sphaeropsidin A; epi-epoformin fungal secondary metabolites; toxins; biological activity; biofilm; antibiotic-resistance; sphaeropsidin A; epi-epoformin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Roscetto, E.; Masi, M.; Esposito, M.; Di Lecce, R.; Delicato, A.; Maddau, L.; Calabrò, V.; Evidente, A.; Catania, M.R. Anti-Biofilm Activity of the Fungal Phytotoxin Sphaeropsidin A against Clinical Isolates of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Toxins 2020, 12, 444. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070444

AMA Style

Roscetto E, Masi M, Esposito M, Di Lecce R, Delicato A, Maddau L, Calabrò V, Evidente A, Catania MR. Anti-Biofilm Activity of the Fungal Phytotoxin Sphaeropsidin A against Clinical Isolates of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):444. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070444

Chicago/Turabian Style

Roscetto, Emanuela, Marco Masi, Matilde Esposito, Roberta Di Lecce, Antonella Delicato, Lucia Maddau, Viola Calabrò, Antonio Evidente, and Maria R. Catania 2020. "Anti-Biofilm Activity of the Fungal Phytotoxin Sphaeropsidin A against Clinical Isolates of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria" Toxins 12, no. 7: 444. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins12070444

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