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Article

Can Cyanobacterial Diversity in the Source Predict the Diversity in Sludge and the Risk of Toxin Release in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant?

1
Department of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Polytechnique Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3A7, Canada
2
Water Research Australia, Adelaide SA 5001, Australia
3
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC H2V 0B3, Canada
4
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada
5
McGill Genome Center, McGill University, Montréal, QC H3A 0G1, Canada
6
National Research Council Canada, Energy, Mining and Environment, Montréal, QC H4P 2R2, Canada
7
Department of Chemistry, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2020 / Revised: 22 December 2020 / Accepted: 29 December 2020 / Published: 1 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Cyanobacteria and Cyanotoxins in Waters)
Conventional processes (coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration) are widely used in drinking water treatment plants and are considered a good treatment strategy to eliminate cyanobacterial cells and cell-bound cyanotoxins. The diversity of cyanobacteria was investigated using taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomics over two seasons in a drinking water treatment plant before, during, and after the bloom. Changes in the community structure over time at the phylum, genus, and species levels were monitored in samples retrieved from raw water (RW), sludge in the holding tank (ST), and sludge supernatant (SST). Aphanothece clathrata brevis, Microcystis aeruginosa, Dolichospermum spiroides, and Chroococcus minimus were predominant species detected in RW by taxonomic cell counts. Shotgun metagenomics revealed that Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in RW before and after the cyanobacterial bloom. Taxonomic cell counts and shotgun metagenomic showed that the Dolichospermum bloom occurred inside the plant. Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the major bacterial phyla during the bloom. Shotgun metagenomics also showed that Synechococcus, Microcystis, and Dolichospermum were the predominant detected cyanobacterial genera in the samples. Conventional treatment removed more than 92% of cyanobacterial cells but led to cell accumulation in the sludge up to 31 times more than in the RW influx. Coagulation/sedimentation selectively removed more than 96% of Microcystis and Dolichospermum. Cyanobacterial community in the sludge varied from raw water to sludge during sludge storage (1–13 days). This variation was due to the selective removal of coagulation/sedimentation as well as the accumulation of captured cells over the period of storage time. However, the prediction of the cyanobacterial community composition in the SST remained a challenge. Among nutrient parameters, orthophosphate availability was related to community profile in RW samples, whereas communities in ST were influenced by total nitrogen, Kjeldahl nitrogen (N- Kjeldahl), total and particulate phosphorous, and total organic carbon (TOC). No trend was observed on the impact of nutrients on SST communities. This study profiled new health-related, environmental, and technical challenges for the production of drinking water due to the complex fate of cyanobacteria in cyanobacteria-laden sludge and supernatant. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; microcystins (MCs); water treatment; sludge; shotgun metagenomics; cyanobacterial community; high-throughput sequencing cyanobacteria; microcystins (MCs); water treatment; sludge; shotgun metagenomics; cyanobacterial community; high-throughput sequencing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jalili, F.; Trigui, H.; Guerra Maldonado, J.F.; Dorner, S.; Zamyadi, A.; Shapiro, B.J.; Terrat, Y.; Fortin, N.; Sauvé, S.; Prévost, M. Can Cyanobacterial Diversity in the Source Predict the Diversity in Sludge and the Risk of Toxin Release in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant? Toxins 2021, 13, 25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010025

AMA Style

Jalili F, Trigui H, Guerra Maldonado JF, Dorner S, Zamyadi A, Shapiro BJ, Terrat Y, Fortin N, Sauvé S, Prévost M. Can Cyanobacterial Diversity in the Source Predict the Diversity in Sludge and the Risk of Toxin Release in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant? Toxins. 2021; 13(1):25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010025

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jalili, Farhad, Hana Trigui, Juan F. Guerra Maldonado, Sarah Dorner, Arash Zamyadi, B. J. Shapiro, Yves Terrat, Nathalie Fortin, Sébastien Sauvé, and Michèle Prévost. 2021. "Can Cyanobacterial Diversity in the Source Predict the Diversity in Sludge and the Risk of Toxin Release in a Drinking Water Treatment Plant?" Toxins 13, no. 1: 25. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13010025

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