Next Article in Journal
A Comparative Analysis of Methods (LC-MS/MS, LC-MS and Rapid Test Kits) for the Determination of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Oysters, Mussels and Pipis
Next Article in Special Issue
Organisation of Multi-Mycotoxin Proficiency Tests: Evaluation of the Performances of the Laboratories Using the Triple A Rating Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Characterization of New Allergens from the Venom of the European Paper Wasp Polistes dominula
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Targeted UHPLC-MS/MS Method Validated for the Quantification of Ergot Alkaloids in Cereal-Based Baby Food from the Belgian Market
Review

Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone—Synergistic or Antagonistic Agri-Food Chain Co-Contaminants?

1
School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
2
Alltech Biotechnology Centre, Co. Meath, Ireland
3
School of Chemical Sciences, National Centre for Sensor Research, DCU Water Institute, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
4
School of Biotechnology, National Centre for Sensor Research, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 June 2021 / Revised: 3 August 2021 / Accepted: 6 August 2021 / Published: 11 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins, Food Safety and Metrology)
Deoxynivalenol (DON) and Zearalenone (ZEN) are two commonly co-occurring mycotoxins produced by members of the genus Fusarium. As important food chain contaminants, these can adversely affect both human and animal health. Critically, as they are formed prior to harvesting, their occurrence cannot be eliminated during food production, leading to ongoing contamination challenges. DON is one of the most commonly occurring mycotoxins and is found as a contaminant of cereal grains that are consumed by humans and animals. Consumption of DON-contaminated feed can result in vomiting, diarrhoea, refusal of feed, and reduced weight gain in animals. ZEN is an oestrogenic mycotoxin that has been shown to have a negative effect on the reproductive function of animals. Individually, their mode of action and impacts have been well-studied; however, their co-occurrence is less well understood. This common co-occurrence of DON and ZEN makes it a critical issue for the Agri-Food industry, with a fundamental understanding required to develop mitigation strategies. To address this issue, in this targeted review, we appraise what is known of the mechanisms of action of DON and ZEN with particular attention to studies that have assessed their toxic effects when present together. We demonstrate that parameters that impact toxicity include species and cell type, relative concentration, exposure time and administration methods, and we highlight additional research required to further elucidate mechanisms of action and mitigation strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Deoxynivalenol; Zearalenone; synergistic; antagonistic; toxicity; co-occurrence Deoxynivalenol; Zearalenone; synergistic; antagonistic; toxicity; co-occurrence
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Thapa, A.; Horgan, K.A.; White, B.; Walls, D. Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone—Synergistic or Antagonistic Agri-Food Chain Co-Contaminants? Toxins 2021, 13, 561. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080561

AMA Style

Thapa A, Horgan KA, White B, Walls D. Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone—Synergistic or Antagonistic Agri-Food Chain Co-Contaminants? Toxins. 2021; 13(8):561. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080561

Chicago/Turabian Style

Thapa, Asmita, Karina A. Horgan, Blánaid White, and Dermot Walls. 2021. "Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone—Synergistic or Antagonistic Agri-Food Chain Co-Contaminants?" Toxins 13, no. 8: 561. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/toxins13080561

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop