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Antioxidants, Volume 13, Issue 5 (May 2024) – 119 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): C. albicans Prn1 is a protein that is similar to mammalian Pirin, which increases in response to H2O2, a compound used to mimic the oxidative action of phagocytes. To analyse the function of Prn1 in response to oxidative stress, the deleted mutant strain prn1∆ and the wild-type strain SN250 were treated with H2O2. Proteomics studies showed important differences in proteins with oxidoreductase activity, proteasome-related proteins, and several important transcription factors, such as Mnl1. Functional studies validated the results of proteomics studies and showed that the absence of Prn1 led to higher ROS levels, decreased survival, increased apoptosis, and increased proteasome activity. Results support the important role of Prn1 under oxidative stress and its possible role as a target for new antifungals. View this paper
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20 pages, 6679 KiB  
Article
Metabolomic Profiling of Floccularia luteovirens from Different Geographical Regions Proposes a Novel Perspective on Their Antioxidative Activities
by Chuyu Tang, Yuejun Fan, Tao Wang, Jie Wang, Mengjun Xiao, Min He, Xiyun Chang, Yuling Li and Xiuzhang Li
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 620; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050620 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 721
Abstract
Floccularia luteovirens, an endemic resource of the Tibetan Plateau, possesses significant medicinal and ecological values. However, the understanding of antioxidant capacity and metabolic profiling of F. luteovirens from diverse regions remains elusive due to limited resources. Therefore, to comprehensively comprehend the antioxidant [...] Read more.
Floccularia luteovirens, an endemic resource of the Tibetan Plateau, possesses significant medicinal and ecological values. However, the understanding of antioxidant capacity and metabolic profiling of F. luteovirens from diverse regions remains elusive due to limited resources. Therefore, to comprehensively comprehend the antioxidant capacity and metabolite diversity of F. luteovirens, we conducted a rounded analysis of its antioxidant capacity from three distinct regions using both untargeted and targeted metabolomics. Determination of antioxidant indices, such as ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolic content (TPC), and flavonoid content (FC), revealed the robust antioxidant capacity of F. luteovirens. QL F. luteovirens (QLFL) exhibited no significant difference compared to ZD F. luteovirens (ZDFL); however, both were significantly distinct from XH F. luteovirens (XHFL) across multiple indices. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between FRAP and flavonoid content. A total of 5782 metabolites were identified and chemically classified. Metabolites of F. luteovirens varied significantly at different regions and eight key differential metabolites were screened. Phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, phenylalanine metabolism, and cyanoamino acid metabolism were the main different regulatory pathways. Consequently, the disparities in the antioxidant activity of F. luteovirens may primarily be ascribed to the biosynthesis and metabolism of phenylalanine, while vanillic acid could potentially serve as a pivotal metabolite influencing the antioxidative capacity of F. luteovirens by targeted metabolomics. These findings enhance our understanding of the composition of F. luteovirens and provide valuable resources for its comprehensive utilization and targeted development. Full article
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22 pages, 2943 KiB  
Article
Reaction Mechanisms of H2S Oxidation by Naphthoquinones
by Kenneth R. Olson, Kasey J. Clear, Tsuyoshi Takata, Yan Gao, Zhilin Ma, Ella Pfaff, Anthony Travlos, Jennifer Luu, Katherine Wilson, Zachary Joseph, Ian Kyle, Stephen M. Kasko, Prentiss Jones Jr, Jon Fukuto, Ming Xian, Gang Wu and Karl D. Straub
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 619; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050619 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 1151
Abstract
1,4-naphthoquinones (NQs) catalytically oxidize H2S to per- and polysufides and sulfoxides, reduce oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and can form NQ-SH adducts through Michael addition. Here, we measured oxygen consumption and used sulfur-specific fluorophores, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), [...] Read more.
1,4-naphthoquinones (NQs) catalytically oxidize H2S to per- and polysufides and sulfoxides, reduce oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, and can form NQ-SH adducts through Michael addition. Here, we measured oxygen consumption and used sulfur-specific fluorophores, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and UV-Vis spectrometry to examine H2S oxidation by NQs with various substituent groups. In general, the order of H2S oxidization was DCNQ ~ juglone > 1,4-NQ > plumbagin >DMNQ ~ 2-MNQ > menadione, although this order varied somewhat depending on the experimental conditions. DMNQ does not form adducts with GSH or cysteine (Cys), yet it readily oxidizes H2S to polysulfides and sulfoxides. This suggests that H2S oxidation occurs at the carbonyl moiety and not at the quinoid 2 or 3 carbons, although the latter cannot be ruled out. We found little evidence from oxygen consumption studies or LC-MS/MS that NQs directly oxidize H2S2–4, and we propose that apparent reactions of NQs with inorganic polysulfides are due to H2S impurities in the polysulfides or an equilibrium between H2S and H2Sn. Collectively, NQ oxidation of H2S forms a variety of products that include hydropersulfides, hydropolysulfides, sulfenylpolysulfides, sulfite, and thiosulfate, and some of these reactions may proceed until an insoluble S8 colloid is formed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section ROS, RNS and RSS)
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16 pages, 40800 KiB  
Article
Alginate Oligosaccharides Protect Gastric Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress Damage through Induction of the Nrf2 Pathway
by Samantha Acevedo, Alejandra A. Covarrubias, Paola Haeger, Floria Pancetti, Fadia Tala and Erwin de la Fuente-Ortega
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 618; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050618 - 20 May 2024
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Gastric diseases represent a significant global public health challenge, characterized by molecular dysregulation in redox homeostasis and heightened oxidative stress. Although prior preclinical studies have demonstrated the cytoprotective antioxidant effects of alginate oligosaccharides (AOSs) through the Nrf2 pathway, whether such mechanisms apply to [...] Read more.
Gastric diseases represent a significant global public health challenge, characterized by molecular dysregulation in redox homeostasis and heightened oxidative stress. Although prior preclinical studies have demonstrated the cytoprotective antioxidant effects of alginate oligosaccharides (AOSs) through the Nrf2 pathway, whether such mechanisms apply to gastric diseases remains unclear. In this study, we used the GES-1 gastric cell line exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a damage model to investigate the impact of AOS on cell viability and its associated mechanisms. Our results revealed that pre-incubation with AOS for either 4 h or 24 h significantly improved the viability of GES-1 cells exposed to H2O2. In addition, AOS reduced the intracellular ROS levels, activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway, with increased Nrf2 protein and mRNA expression and a significant upregulation of the target genes HO-1 and NQO1. The activation of Nrf2 was correlated with decreased Keap1 protein expression and an increased level of the autophagy protein p62/SQSTM1, suggesting the activation of Nrf2 through a noncanonical pathway. This study suggests that AOS is a potential treatment for protecting gastric epithelial cells from oxidative stress by activating the p62/SQSTM1-Keap1-Nrf2 axis and laying the foundation for future investigations about its specific therapeutic mechanisms. Full article
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18 pages, 1967 KiB  
Review
Review of the Potential Role of Ascorbate in the Prevention and Treatment of Gynecological Cancers
by Xiaochang Shen, Jiandong Wang, Boer Deng, Ziyi Zhao, Shuning Chen, Weimin Kong, Chunxiao Zhou and Victoria Bae-Jump
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 617; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050617 - 19 May 2024
Viewed by 780
Abstract
Ascorbate (vitamin C) is an essential vitamin for the human body and participates in various physiological processes as an important coenzyme and antioxidant. Furthermore, the role of ascorbate in the prevention and treatment of cancer including gynecological cancer has gained much more interest [...] Read more.
Ascorbate (vitamin C) is an essential vitamin for the human body and participates in various physiological processes as an important coenzyme and antioxidant. Furthermore, the role of ascorbate in the prevention and treatment of cancer including gynecological cancer has gained much more interest recently. The bioavailability and certain biological functions of ascorbate are distinct in males versus females due to differences in lean body mass, sex hormones, and lifestyle factors. Despite epidemiological evidence that ascorbate-rich foods and ascorbate plasma concentrations are inversely related to cancer risk, ascorbate has not demonstrated a significant protective effect in patients with gynecological cancers. Adequate ascorbate intake may have the potential to reduce the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and high-risk HPV persistence status. High-dose ascorbate exerts antitumor activity and synergizes with chemotherapeutic agents in preclinical cancer models of gynecological cancer. In this review, we provide evidence for the biological activity of ascorbate in females and discuss the potential role of ascorbate in the prevention and treatment of ovarian, endometrial, and cervical cancers. Full article
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16 pages, 2316 KiB  
Article
Lutein and Zeaxanthin Enhance, Whereas Oxidation, Fructosylation, and Low pH Damage High-Density Lipoprotein Biological Functionality
by Jingyuan Zheng, Brian V. Hong, Joanne K. Agus, Xinyu Tang, Nola R. Klebaner, Siyu Chen, Fei Guo, Danielle J. Harvey, Carlito B. Lebrilla and Angela M. Zivkovic
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 616; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050616 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 654
Abstract
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are key regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis but are functionally altered in many chronic diseases. The factors that cause HDL functional loss in chronic disease are not fully understood. It is also unknown what roles antioxidant carotenoids play in protecting [...] Read more.
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are key regulators of cellular cholesterol homeostasis but are functionally altered in many chronic diseases. The factors that cause HDL functional loss in chronic disease are not fully understood. It is also unknown what roles antioxidant carotenoids play in protecting HDL against functional loss. The aim of this study was to measure how various disease-associated chemical factors including exposure to (1) Cu2+ ions, (2) hypochlorous acid (HOCL), (3) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), (4) sialidase, (5) glycosidase, (6) high glucose, (7) high fructose, and (8) acidic pH, and the carotenoid antioxidants (9) lutein and (10) zeaxanthin affect HDL functionality. We hypothesized that some of the modifications would have stronger impacts on HDL particle structure and function than others and that lutein and zeaxanthin would improve HDL function. HDL samples were isolated from generally healthy human plasma and incubated with the corresponding treatments listed above. Cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), lecithin–cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activity, and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity were measured in order to determine changes in HDL functionality. Median HDL particle diameter was increased by acidic pH treatment and reduced by HOCl, high glucose, high fructose, N-glycosidase, and lutein treatments. Acidic pH, oxidation, and fructosylation all reduced HDL CEC, whereas lutein, zeaxanthin, and sialidase treatment improved HDL CEC. LCAT activity was reduced by acidic pH, oxidation, high fructose treatments, and lutein. PON1 activity was reduced by sialidase, glycosidase, H2O2, and fructose and improved by zeaxanthin and lutein treatment. These results show that exposure to oxidizing agents, high fructose, and low pH directly impairs HDL functionality related to cholesterol efflux and particle maturation, whereas deglycosylation impairs HDL antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin improve or preserve both HDL cholesterol efflux and antioxidant activity but have no effect on particle maturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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13 pages, 636 KiB  
Article
Hydration and Fortification of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with Grape Skin Phenolics—Effects of Ultrasound Application and Heating
by Gloria Bonassi and Vera Lavelli
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050615 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Ultrasound (US)-assisted soaking combined with fortification with red grape skin (GS) phenolics was applied on two Phaseolus varieties, namely White Kidney Bean (WKB) and Cranberry Bean (CB), before heat treatment. The aims were to investigate: (a) the effect of US application on the [...] Read more.
Ultrasound (US)-assisted soaking combined with fortification with red grape skin (GS) phenolics was applied on two Phaseolus varieties, namely White Kidney Bean (WKB) and Cranberry Bean (CB), before heat treatment. The aims were to investigate: (a) the effect of US application on the kinetic of hydration; (b) the extent of absorption of different phenolic classes of GS into the beans and the resulting effect on antioxidant activity; (c) the effects of heat treatment on the phenolic fraction and antioxidant activity of GS extract- and water-soaked beans. US fastened the soaking step of both WKB and CB beans, which showed the sigmoidal and the downward concave shape hydration curves, respectively. Anthocyanins, flavonols, flavanol and phenolic acids levels increased with GS soaking, but US application was effective only for increasing the level of flavonols, while it favored the loss of endogenous phenolic acids and it did not affect the uptake of anthocyanins and flavanols. Heat treatment decreased the levels of most of phenolic compounds, but increased the levels of monomeric flavanols. Overall, the antioxidant activity was 40% higher in WKB and 53% higher in CB upon GS-fortification than in the control beans, despite the effects of heating. This fortification strategy could be applied for value addition of varieties low in phenolics or as a pre-treatment before intensive processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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27 pages, 12187 KiB  
Article
Multi-Omics Reveals Disrupted Immunometabolic Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress in Adipose Tissue of Dairy Cows with Subclinical Ketosis: A Sphingolipid-Centric Perspective
by Huiying Zhao, Liuxue Li, Jian Tan, Ying Wang, Ao Zhang, Yuchao Zhao and Linshu Jiang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 614; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050614 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 662
Abstract
Ketosis, especially its subclinical form, is frequently observed in high-yielding dairy cows and is linked to various diseases during the transition period. Although adipose tissue plays a significant role in the development of metabolic disorders, its exact impact on the emergence of subclinical [...] Read more.
Ketosis, especially its subclinical form, is frequently observed in high-yielding dairy cows and is linked to various diseases during the transition period. Although adipose tissue plays a significant role in the development of metabolic disorders, its exact impact on the emergence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) is still poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to characterize and compare the profiling of transcriptome and lipidome of blood and adipose tissue between SCK and healthy cows and investigate the potential correlation between metabolic disorders and lipid metabolism. We obtained blood and adipose tissue samples from healthy cows (CON, n = 8, β-hydroxybutyric acid concentration < 1.2 mmol/L) and subclinical ketotic cows (SCK, n = 8, β-hydroxybutyric acid concentration = 1.2–3.0 mmol/L) for analyzing biochemical parameters, transcriptome, and lipidome. We found that serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids, malonaldehyde, serum amyloid A protein, IL-1β, and IL-6 were higher in SCK cows than in CON cows. Levels of adiponectin and total antioxidant capacity were higher in serum and adipose tissue from SCK cows than in CON cows. The top enriched pathways in whole blood and adipose tissue were associated with immune and inflammatory responses and sphingolipid metabolism, respectively. The accumulation of ceramide and sphingomyelin in adipose tissue was paralleled by an increase in genes related to ceramide biosynthesis, lipolysis, and inflammation and a decrease in genes related to ceramide catabolism, lipogenesis, adiponectin production, and antioxidant enzyme systems. Increased ceramide concentrations in blood and adipose tissue correlated with reduced insulin sensitivity. The current results indicate that the lipid profile of blood and adipose tissue is altered with SCK and that certain ceramide species correlate with metabolic health. Our research suggests that disruptions in ceramide metabolism could be crucial in the progression of SCK, exacerbating conditions such as insulin resistance, increased lipolysis, inflammation, and oxidative stress, providing a potential biomarker of SCK and a novel target for nutritional manipulation and pharmacological therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Livestock and Poultry—2nd Edition)
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21 pages, 4630 KiB  
Article
The Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide MOTS-c Alleviates Radiation Pneumonitis via an Nrf2-Dependent Mechanism
by Yanli Zhang, Jianfeng Huang, Yaru Zhang, Fengjuan Jiang, Shengpeng Li, Shuai He, Jiaojiao Sun, Dan Chen, Ying Tong, Qingfeng Pang and Yaxian Wu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 613; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050613 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 517
Abstract
Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a prevalent and fatal complication of thoracic radiotherapy due to the lack of effective treatment options. RP primarily arises from mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells. The mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c has demonstrated protective effects against various diseases by mitigating [...] Read more.
Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is a prevalent and fatal complication of thoracic radiotherapy due to the lack of effective treatment options. RP primarily arises from mitochondrial injury in lung epithelial cells. The mitochondrial-derived peptide MOTS-c has demonstrated protective effects against various diseases by mitigating mitochondrial injury. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 20 Gy of lung irradiation (IR) and received daily intraperitoneal injections of MOTS-c for 2 weeks. MOTS-c significantly ameliorated lung tissue damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress caused by radiation. Meanwhile, MOTS-c reversed the apoptosis and mitochondrial damage of alveolar epithelial cells in RP mice. Furthermore, MOTS-c significantly inhibited oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in MLE-12 cells and primary mouse lung epithelial cells. Mechanistically, MOTS-c increased the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) level and promoted its nuclear translocation. Notably, Nrf2 deficiency abolished the protective function of MOTS-c in mice with RP. In conclusion, MOTS-c alleviates RP by protecting mitochondrial function through an Nrf2-dependent mechanism, indicating that MOTS-c may be a novel potential protective agent against RP. Full article
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27 pages, 3052 KiB  
Article
Examining the Alterations in Metabolite Constituents and Antioxidant Properties in Mountain-Cultivated Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) Organs during a Two-Month Maturation Period
by Hee Yul Lee, Du Yong Cho, Du Hyun Kim, Jong-Hwan Park, Jong Bin Jeong, Se Hyeon Jeon, Ji Ho Lee, Eun Jeong Ko, Kye Man Cho and Jin Hwan Lee
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 612; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050612 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 548
Abstract
The current research was the first to prove the existence of fluctuations in the metabolite constituents and antioxidant properties in different organs (leaves, stems, and roots) of the mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) plant during a two-month maturation period. Four metabolites, including fatty acids, amino [...] Read more.
The current research was the first to prove the existence of fluctuations in the metabolite constituents and antioxidant properties in different organs (leaves, stems, and roots) of the mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG) plant during a two-month maturation period. Four metabolites, including fatty acids, amino acids, ginsenosides, and phenolic phytochemicals, exhibited considerable differences in organs and maturation times with the following order: leaves > stems > roots. The predominant metabolite contents were found in leaves, with fatty acid (1057.9 mg/100 g) on 31 May, amino acid (1989.2 mg/100 g) on 13 July, ginsenosides (88.7 mg/g) on 31 May, and phenolic phytochemical (638.3 μg/g) on 31 May. Interestingly, ginsenoside content in leaves were highest, with 84.8 → 88.7 → 82.2 → 78.3 mg/g. Specifically, ginsenosides Re, Rd, and F2 showed abundant content ranging from 19.1 to 16.9 mg/g, 8.5 to 14.8 mg/g, and 9.5 to 13.1 mg/g, respectively. Phenolic phytochemicals exhibited remarkable differences in organs compared to maturation periods, with the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content recorded at 9.48 GAE and 1.30 RE mg/g in leaves on 31 May. The antioxidant capacities on radical, FRAP, and DNA protection differed significantly, with leaves on 31 May exhibiting the highest values: 88.4% (DPPH), 89.5% (ABTS), 0.84 OD593 nm (FRAP) at 500 μg/mL, and 100% DNA protection at 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, principal cluster analysis revealed metabolite variability as follows: ginsenoside (83.3%) > amino acid (71.8%) > phenolic phytochemical (61.1%) > fatty acid (58.8%). A clustering heatmap highlighted significant changes in metabolite components under the maturation times for each organ. Our findings suggest that MCG leaves on 31 May may be a potential source for developing nutraceuticals, offering highly beneficial components and strong antioxidants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural and Synthetic Antioxidants)
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20 pages, 4695 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Resveratrol and Apigenin on Jejunal Oxidative Injury in Ducks and on Immortalized Duck Intestinal Epithelial Cells Exposed to H2O2
by Ning Zhou, Yongqing Cao, Youwen Luo, Lihua Wang, Ruiqing Li, Heshuang Di, Tiantian Gu, Yun Cao, Tao Zeng, Jianping Zhu, Li Chen, Dong An, Yue Ma, Wenwu Xu, Yong Tian and Lizhi Lu
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 611; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050611 - 17 May 2024
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Oxidative stress increases the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells and impairs intestinal epithelial cell renewal, which further promotes intestinal barrier dysfunction and even death. Extensive evidence supports that resveratrol and apigenin have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Here, we investigated the ability of [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress increases the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells and impairs intestinal epithelial cell renewal, which further promotes intestinal barrier dysfunction and even death. Extensive evidence supports that resveratrol and apigenin have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. Here, we investigated the ability of these two compounds to alleviate diquat-induced jejunal oxidative stress and morphological injury, using the duck as a model, as well as the effects of apigenin on oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in immortalized duck intestinal epithelial cells (IDECs). Ducks were randomly assigned to the following four groups, with five replicates: a control (CON) group, a diquat-challenged (DIQ) group, a resveratrol (500 mg/kg) + diquat (RES) group, and an apigenin (500 mg/kg) + diquat (API) group. We found that serum catalase (CAT) activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) markedly reduced in the RES and API groups as compared to the DIQ group (p < 0.05); moreover, serum S superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels increased significantly in the API group as compared to the DIQ group (p < 0.05). In jejunal mucosa, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the RES and API groups decreased more than that in the DIQ group (p < 0.05). In addition, the jejunal expression levels of the NRF2 and GCLM genes in the RES and API groups increased notably compared with those in the DIQ group (p < 0.05); meanwhile, CAT activity in the RES and API groups was markedly elevated compared with that in the CON group (p < 0.05). In IDECs, apigenin significantly restrained the H2O2-mediated increase in MDA content and decrease in CAT levels (p < 0.05). Furthermore, apigenin increased the protein expression of p-NRF2, NRF2, p-AKT, and p-P38; downregulated that of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9; and reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 in H2O2-treated IDECs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, resveratrol and apigenin can be used as natural feed additives to protect against jejunal oxidative stress in ducks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Poultry Reproduction and Nutrition)
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16 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Effects of Food-Derived Antioxidant Compounds on In Vitro Heavy Metal Intestinal Bioaccessibility
by Maria Maisto, Adua Marzocchi, Roberto Ciampaglia, Vincenzo Piccolo, Niloufar Keivani, Vincenzo Summa and Gian Carlo Tenore
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 610; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050610 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Environmental contamination by heavy metals (HMs) has emerged as a significant global issue in recent decades. Among natural substances, food-deriving polyphenols have found a valuable application in chelating therapy, partially limited by their low water solubility. Thus, three different hydroalcoholic extracts titrated in [...] Read more.
Environmental contamination by heavy metals (HMs) has emerged as a significant global issue in recent decades. Among natural substances, food-deriving polyphenols have found a valuable application in chelating therapy, partially limited by their low water solubility. Thus, three different hydroalcoholic extracts titrated in quercetin (QE), ellagic acid (EA), and curcumin (CUR) were formulated using maltodextrins as carriers, achieving a powder with a valuable water solubility (MQE 91.3 ± 1.2%, MEA 93.4 ± 2.1, and MCUR 89.3 ± 2%). Overcoming the problem of water solubility, such formulations were tested in an in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion experiment conducted on a water sample with standardized concentrations of the principal HMs. Our results indicate that regarding the nonessential HMs investigated (Pb, Cd, As, Sb, and Hg), MQE has been shown to be the most effective in increasing the HMs’ non-bioaccessible concentration, resulting in concentration increases in Cd of 68.3%, in As of 51.9%, in Hg of 58.9%, in Pb of 271.4, and in Sb of 111.2% (vs control, p < 0.001) in non-bioaccessible fractions. Regarding the essential HMs, MEA has shown the greatest capability to increase their intestinal bioaccessibility, resulting in +68.5%, +61.1, and +22.3% (vs control, p < 0.001) increases in Cu, Zn, and Fe, respectively. Finally, considering the strong relation between the antiradical and chelating activities, the radical scavenging potentials of the formulations was assayed in DPPH and ABTS assays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidants in Fruits and Vegetables)
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15 pages, 783 KiB  
Article
Zinc and Its Antioxidant Properties: The Potential Use of Blood Zinc Levels as a Marker of Cancer Risk in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers
by Milena Matuszczak, Adam Kiljańczyk, Wojciech Marciniak, Róża Derkacz, Klaudia Stempa, Piotr Baszuk, Marta Bryśkiewicz, Ping Sun, Angela Cheriyan, Cezary Cybulski, Tadeusz Dębniak, Jacek Gronwald, Tomasz Huzarski, Marcin R. Lener, Anna Jakubowska, Marek Szwiec, Małgorzata Stawicka-Niełacna, Dariusz Godlewski, Artur Prusaczyk, Andrzej Jasiewicz, Tomasz Kluz, Joanna Tomiczek-Szwiec, Ewa Kilar-Kobierzycka, Monika Siołek, Rafał Wiśniowski, Renata Posmyk, Joanna Jarkiewicz-Tretyn, Rodney J. Scott, Steven A. Narod and Jan Lubińskiadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 609; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050609 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 690
Abstract
BRCA1 mutations predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer. The anticancer effect of zinc is typically linked to its antioxidant abilities and protecting cells against oxidative stress. Zinc regulates key processes in cancer development, including DNA repair, gene expression, and apoptosis. We took [...] Read more.
BRCA1 mutations predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer. The anticancer effect of zinc is typically linked to its antioxidant abilities and protecting cells against oxidative stress. Zinc regulates key processes in cancer development, including DNA repair, gene expression, and apoptosis. We took a blood sample from 989 female BRCA1 mutation carriers who were initially unaffected by cancer and followed them for a mean of 7.5 years thereafter. There were 172 incident cases of cancer, including 121 cases of breast cancer, 29 cases of ovarian cancers, and 22 cancers at other sites. A zinc level in the lowest tertile was associated with a modestly higher risk of ovarian cancer compared to women with zinc levels in the upper two tertiles (HR = 1.65; 95% CI 0.80 to 3.44; p = 0.18), but this was not significant. Among those women with zinc levels in the lowest tertile, the 10-year cumulative risk of ovarian cancer was 6.1%. Among those in the top two tertiles of zinc level, the ten-year cumulative risk of ovarian cancer was 4.7%. There was no significant association between zinc level and breast cancer risk. Our preliminary study does not support an association between serum zinc level and cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Full article
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19 pages, 2918 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antioxidant and In Silico Evaluation of the Anti-β-Lactamase Potential of the Extracts of Cylindrospermum alatosporum NR125682 and Loriellopsis cavenicola NR117881
by Albert O. Ikhane, Siphesihle Z. Sithole, Nkosinathi D. Cele, Foluso O. Osunsanmi, Rebamang A. Mosa and Andrew R. Opoku
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 608; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050608 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 703
Abstract
Cyanobacteria in recent times have been touted to be a suitable source for the discovery of novel compounds, including antioxidants and antibiotics, due to their large arsenal of metabolites. This study presents the in vitro antioxidant and in silico evaluation of Cylindrospermum alatosporum [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria in recent times have been touted to be a suitable source for the discovery of novel compounds, including antioxidants and antibiotics, due to their large arsenal of metabolites. This study presents the in vitro antioxidant and in silico evaluation of Cylindrospermum alatosporum NR125682 and Loriellopsis cavenicola NR117881, isolated from freshwater ponds around the campus of the University of Zululand, South Africa. The isolates were confirmed using 16S rRNA. Various crude extracts of the isolated microbes were prepared through sequential extraction using hexane, dichloromethane, and 70% ethanol. The chemical constituents of the crude extracts were elucidated by FTIR and GC-MS spectroscopy. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was determined by the free radical (DPPH, ABTS, OH, and Fe2+) systems. Molecular docking of the major constituents of the extracts against β-lactamase was also evaluated. GC-MS analysis indicated the dominating presence of n-alkanes. The extracts exhibited varying degrees of antioxidant activity (scavenging of free radicals; an IC50 range of 8–10 µg/mL was obtained for ABTS). A good binding affinity (−6.6, −6.3 Kcal/mol) of some the organic chemicals (diglycerol tetranitrate, and 2,2-dimethyl-5-(3-methyl-2-oxiranyl)cyclohexanone) was obtained following molecular docking. The evaluated antioxidant activities, coupled with the obtained docking score, potentiates the antimicrobial activity of the extracts. Full article
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15 pages, 2949 KiB  
Article
Research on Phenolic Content and Its Antioxidant Activities in Fermented Rosa rugosa ‘Dianhong’ Petals with Brown Sugar
by Yueyue Cai, Merhaba Abla, Lu Gao, Jinsong Wu and Lixin Yang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 607; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050607 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 566
Abstract
Fermented Rosa rugosa ‘Dianhong’ petals with brown sugar, a biologically active food popularized in Dali Prefecture, Northwest Yunnan, China, are rich in bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, exhibiting strong antioxidant activity. This study evaluated their antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents, and concentrations of polyphenols [...] Read more.
Fermented Rosa rugosa ‘Dianhong’ petals with brown sugar, a biologically active food popularized in Dali Prefecture, Northwest Yunnan, China, are rich in bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols, exhibiting strong antioxidant activity. This study evaluated their antioxidant activities, total phenolic contents, and concentrations of polyphenols at different fermentation conditions using different assays: DPPH free-radical scavenging activity, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Folin–Ciocalteu assays, and HPLC–MS/MS and HPLC–DAD methods. The results indicated that fermentation significantly increased (p < 0.05) the antioxidant activity and polyphenol concentration of R. rugosa ‘Dianhong’. Furthermore, Saccharomyces rouxii TFR-1 fermentation achieved optimal bioactivity earlier than natural fermentation. Overall, we found that the use of Saccharomyces rouxii (TFR-1) is a more effective strategy for the production of polyphenol-rich fermented R. rugosa ‘Dianhong’ petals with brown sugar compared to natural fermentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Properties and Applications of Food By-Products)
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32 pages, 6873 KiB  
Review
Role of Epigenetic Modulation in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Implications of Phytochemical Interventions
by Mani Iyer Prasanth, Bhagavathi Sundaram Sivamaruthi, Clerance Su Yee Cheong, Kanika Verma, Tewin Tencomnao, James Michael Brimson and Anchalee Prasansuklab
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 606; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050606 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Epigenetics defines changes in cell function without involving alterations in DNA sequence. Neuroepigenetics bridges neuroscience and epigenetics by regulating gene expression in the nervous system and its impact on brain function. With the increase in research in recent years, it was observed that [...] Read more.
Epigenetics defines changes in cell function without involving alterations in DNA sequence. Neuroepigenetics bridges neuroscience and epigenetics by regulating gene expression in the nervous system and its impact on brain function. With the increase in research in recent years, it was observed that alterations in the gene expression did not always originate from changes in the genetic sequence, which has led to understanding the role of epigenetics in neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epigenetic alterations contribute to the aberrant expression of genes involved in neuroinflammation, protein aggregation, and neuronal death. Natural phytochemicals have shown promise as potential therapeutic agents against NDDs because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects in cellular and animal models. For instance, resveratrol (grapes), curcumin (turmeric), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG; green tea) exhibit neuroprotective effects through their influence on DNA methylation patterns, histone acetylation, and non-coding RNA expression profiles. Phytochemicals also aid in slowing disease progression, preserving neuronal function, and enhancing cognitive and motor abilities. The present review focuses on various epigenetic modifications involved in the pathology of NDDs, including AD and PD, gene expression regulation related to epigenetic alterations, and the role of specific polyphenols in influencing epigenetic modifications in AD and PD. Full article
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18 pages, 3367 KiB  
Article
The Role of Pigments and Cryptochrome 1 in the Adaptation of Solanum lycopersicum Photosynthetic Apparatus to High-Intensity Blue Light
by Aleksandr Ashikhmin, Pavel Pashkovskiy, Anatoliy Kosobryukhov, Alexandra Khudyakova, Anna Abramova, Mikhail Vereshchagin, Maksim Bolshakov and Vladimir Kreslavski
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050605 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 490
Abstract
The effects of high-intensity blue light (HIBL, 500/1000 µmol m−2s−1, 450 nm) on Solanum lycopersicum mutants with high pigment (hp) and low pigment (lp) levels and cryptochrome 1 (cry1) deficiency on photosynthesis, chlorophylls, phenols, anthocyanins, nonenzymatic [...] Read more.
The effects of high-intensity blue light (HIBL, 500/1000 µmol m−2s−1, 450 nm) on Solanum lycopersicum mutants with high pigment (hp) and low pigment (lp) levels and cryptochrome 1 (cry1) deficiency on photosynthesis, chlorophylls, phenols, anthocyanins, nonenzymatic antioxidant activity, carotenoid composition, and the expression of light-dependent genes were investigated. The plants, grown under white light for 42 days, were exposed to HIBL for 72 h. The hp mutant quickly adapted to 500 µmol m−2s−1 HIBL, exhibiting enhanced photosynthesis, increased anthocyanin and carotenoids (beta-carotene, zeaxanthin), and increased expression of key genes involved in pigment biosynthesis (PSY1, PAL1, CHS, ANS) and PSII proteins along with an increase in nonenzymatic antioxidant activity. At 1000 µmol m−2s−1 HIBL, the lp mutant showed the highest photosynthetic activity, enhanced expression of genes associated with PSII external proteins (psbO, psbP, psbQ), and increased in neoxanthin content. This mutant demonstrated greater resistance at the higher HIBL, demonstrating increased stomatal conductance and photosynthesis rate. The cry1 mutant exhibited the highest non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) but had the lowest pigment contents and decreased photosynthetic rate and PSII activity, highlighting the critical role of CRY1 in adaptation to HIBL. The hp and lp mutants use distinct adaptation strategies, which are significantly hindered by the cry1 mutation. The pigment content appears to be crucial for adaptation at moderate HIBL doses, while CRY1 content and stomatal activity become more critical at higher doses. Full article
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18 pages, 2047 KiB  
Article
Phenolic and Antioxidant Characterization of Fruit By-Products for Their Nutraceuticals and Dietary Supplements Valorization under a Circular Bio-Economy Approach
by Cristina Terenzi, Gabriela Bermudez, Francesca Medri, Lara Davani, Vincenzo Tumiatti, Vincenza Andrisano, Serena Montanari and Angela De Simone
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050604 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 689
Abstract
Agri-food by-products, obtained as waste from the food industry, negatively impact the global economy and the environment. In order to valorize waste materials from fruit juices and tomato sauces as upcycled materials rich in health-promoting compounds, they were characterized in terms of polyphenolic [...] Read more.
Agri-food by-products, obtained as waste from the food industry, negatively impact the global economy and the environment. In order to valorize waste materials from fruit juices and tomato sauces as upcycled materials rich in health-promoting compounds, they were characterized in terms of polyphenolic and protein content. The results obtained were compared with those collected for their final products. The recovery of polyphenols was performed via ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). A high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated to depict the quali-quantitative polyphenolic profile of both the by-products and the final products. The antioxidant capacity of the resulting extracts was characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometric assays in terms of total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant status (TAS). Moreover, the protein content was assessed with the Kjeldahl method too. The results highlighted a significant quantity of polyphenols remaining in peach, apricot, and apple by-products, which were able to exert an antioxidant activity (in the range of 4.95 ± 5.69 × 10−1 to 7.06 ± 7.96 × 10−1 mmol Trolox 100 g−1 of dry weight (DW) sample). Conversely, the tomato by-products were highly rich in proteins (11.0 ± 2.00 to 14.4 ± 2.60 g of proteins 100 g−1 DW). The results proved that all by-products may potentially be sustainable ingredients with nutritional and functional value in a circular bio-economy prospect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Extraction and Industrial Applications of Antioxidants)
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18 pages, 2454 KiB  
Article
Dendrobium nobile Polysaccharide Attenuates Blue Light-Induced Injury in Retinal Cells and In Vivo in Drosophila
by Wei-Hsiang Hsu, Chanikan Sangkhathat, Mei-Kuang Lu, Wei-Yong Lin, Hsin-Ping Liu and Yun-Lian Lin
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 603; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050603 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Blue light is the higher-energy region of the visible spectrum. Excessive exposure to blue light is known to induce oxidative stress and is harmful to the eyes. The stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (Orchidaceae), named Jinchaishihu, have long been used in traditional Chinese [...] Read more.
Blue light is the higher-energy region of the visible spectrum. Excessive exposure to blue light is known to induce oxidative stress and is harmful to the eyes. The stems of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. (Orchidaceae), named Jinchaishihu, have long been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for nourishing yin, clearing heat, and brightening the eyes. The polysaccharide is one of the major components in D. nobile. However, the effect on ocular cells remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether the polysaccharide from D. nobile can protect the eyes from blue light-induced injury. A crude (DN-P) and a partially purified polysaccharide (DN-PP) from D. nobile were evaluated for their protective effects on blue light-induced damage in ARPE-19 and 661W cells. The in vivo study investigated the electroretinographic response and the expression of phototransduction-related genes in the retinas of a Drosophila model. The results showed that DN-P and DN-PP could improve blue light-induced damage in ARPE-19 and 661W cells, including cell viability, antioxidant activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide production, and reverse opsin 3 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. The in vivo study indicated that DN-P could alleviate eye damage and reverse the expression of phototransduction-related genes, including ninaE, norpA, Gαq, Gβ76C, Gγ30A, TRP, and TRPL, in a dose-dependent manner in blue light-exposed Drosophila. In conclusion, this is the first report demonstrating that D. nobile polysaccharide pretreatment can protect retinal cells and retinal photoreceptors from blue light-induced damage. These results provide supporting evidence for the beneficial potential of D. nobile in preventing blue light-induced eye damage and improving eyesight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Outcomes of Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress)
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11 pages, 939 KiB  
Editorial
Cellular ROS and Antioxidants: Physiological and Pathological Role
by Andrey V. Kozlov, Sabzali Javadov and Natascha Sommer
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 602; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050602 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive oxygen derivatives that include free radicals such as superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydroxyl radical (HO), as well as non-radical molecules hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxynitrite (ONOO), and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellular ROS and Antioxidants: Physiological and Pathological Role)
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14 pages, 5312 KiB  
Article
Anti-Aging Potential of the Two Major Flavonoids Occurring in Asian Water Lily Using In Vitro and In Silico Molecular Modeling Assessments
by Bodee Nutho and Duangjai Tungmunnithum
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 601; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050601 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Our previous study investigated the major flavonoids and antioxidant potential of Asian water lily (Nymphaea lotus L., family Nymphaeaceae) stamens and perianth extracts. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Que-3-Rha) and kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (Kae-3-Gal) were reported as the two most prominent flavonoids found in [...] Read more.
Our previous study investigated the major flavonoids and antioxidant potential of Asian water lily (Nymphaea lotus L., family Nymphaeaceae) stamens and perianth extracts. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (Que-3-Rha) and kaempferol-3-O-galactoside (Kae-3-Gal) were reported as the two most prominent flavonoids found in these extracts. Many flavonoids have been reported on the skin anti-aging effect that are useful for cosmeceutical/phytopharmaceutical application. However, Que-3-Rha and Kae-3-Gal occurring in this medicinal plant have not yet been evaluated for their ability to inhibit skin-aging enzymes. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to assess the enzyme inhibitory activity of Que-3-Rha and Kae-3-Gal, and (2) to conduct molecular modeling of these compounds against critical enzymes involved in skin aging such as collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase. In vitro enzymatic assays demonstrated that both of the two most prominent flavonoids exhibited moderate to good inhibitory activity toward these enzymes. These experimental findings were supported by molecular docking analysis, which indicated that Que-3-Rha and Kae-3-Gal showed superior binding affinity to the target enzymes compared to the positive controls. Additionally, computational predictions suggested favorable skin permeability and no severe toxicity for both compounds. The results from molecular dynamic (MD) simulation revealed that all the complexes remained stable during the 200 ns MD simulation. Structural analyses and binding free energy calculations also supported the inhibitory potential of these two flavonoids against skin-aging enzymes. In conclusion, this study provides valuable insights into the anti-aging potential of the two major flavonoids occurring in this medicinal plant, paving the way for further development of cosmeceutical/phytopharmaceutical products targeting skin aging. Full article
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21 pages, 557 KiB  
Review
Therapeutic Potential of Palmitoylethanolamide in Gastrointestinal Disorders
by Marija Branković, Tijana Gmizić, Marija Dukić, Marija Zdravković, Branislava Daskalović, Davor Mrda, Novica Nikolić, Milica Brajković, Milan Gojgić, Jovana Lalatović, Đorđe Kralj, Ivana Pantić, Marko Vojnović, Tamara Milovanović, Siniša Đurašević and Zoran Todorović
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050600 - 14 May 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid-like bioactive lipid mediator belonging to the family of N-acylethanolamines, most abundantly found in peanuts and egg yolk. When the gastrointestinal (GI) effects of PEA are discussed, it must be pointed out that it affects intestinal motility but also [...] Read more.
Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid-like bioactive lipid mediator belonging to the family of N-acylethanolamines, most abundantly found in peanuts and egg yolk. When the gastrointestinal (GI) effects of PEA are discussed, it must be pointed out that it affects intestinal motility but also modulates gut microbiota. This is due to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory features. Additionally, PEA has shown beneficial effects in several GI diseases, particularly irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel diseases, as various studies have shown, and it is important to emphasize its relative lack of toxicity, even at high dosages. Unfortunately, there is not enough endogenous PEA to treat disturbed gut homeostasis, even though it is produced in the GI tract in response to inflammatory stimuli, so exogenous intake is mandatory to achieve homeostasis. Intake of PEA could be through animal and/or vegetable food, but bearing in mind that a high dosage is needed to achieve a therapeutic effect, it must be compensated through dietary supplements. There are still open questions pending to be answered, so further studies investigating PEA’s effects and mechanisms of action, especially in humans, are crucial to implementing PEA in everyday clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants and Gut Health)
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20 pages, 16723 KiB  
Article
The Antioxidant Dendrobium officinale Polysaccharide Modulates Host Metabolism and Gut Microbiota to Alleviate High-Fat Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− Mice
by Jingyi Qi, Shuaishuai Zhou, Guisheng Wang, Rongrong Hua, Xiaoping Wang, Jian He, Zi Wang, Yinhua Zhu, Junjie Luo, Wenbiao Shi, Yongting Luo and Xiaoxia Chen
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 599; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050599 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 784
Abstract
Background: The discovery of traditional plants’ medicinal and nutritional properties has opened up new avenues for developing pharmaceutical and dietary strategies to prevent atherosclerosis. However, the effect of the antioxidant Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP) on atherosclerosis is still not elucidated. Purpose: This study [...] Read more.
Background: The discovery of traditional plants’ medicinal and nutritional properties has opened up new avenues for developing pharmaceutical and dietary strategies to prevent atherosclerosis. However, the effect of the antioxidant Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (DOP) on atherosclerosis is still not elucidated. Purpose: This study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect and the potential mechanism of DOP on high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice. Study design and methods: The identification of DOP was measured by high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We used high-fat diet (HFD)-induced atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice as an animal model. In the DOP intervention stage, the DOP group was treated by gavage with 200 μL of 200 mg/kg DOP at regular times each day and continued for eight weeks. We detected changes in serum lipid profiles, inflammatory factors, anti-inflammatory factors, and antioxidant capacity to investigate the effect of the DOP on host metabolism. We also determined microbial composition using 16S rRNA gene sequencing to investigate whether the DOP could improve the structure of the gut microbiota in atherosclerotic mice. Results: DOP effectively inhibited histopathological deterioration in atherosclerotic mice and significantly reduced serum lipid levels, inflammatory factors, and malondialdehyde (F/B) production. Additionally, the levels of anti-inflammatory factors and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), were significantly increased after DOP intervention. Furthermore, we found that DOP restructures the gut microbiota composition by decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidota (F/B) ratio. The Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that serum lipid profiles, antioxidant activity, and pro-/anti-inflammatory factors were associated with Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Allobaculum, and Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002. Conclusions: This study suggests that DOP has the potential to be developed as a food prebiotic for the treatment of atherosclerosis in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidants in Cardiovascular Diseases)
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29 pages, 2322 KiB  
Review
A Consolidated Understanding of the Contribution of Redox Dysregulation in the Development of Hearing Impairment
by Xin Yi Yeo, Soohyun Kwon, Kimberley R. Rinai, Sungsu Lee, Sangyong Jung and Raekil Park
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 598; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050598 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 636
Abstract
The etiology of hearing impairment is multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic studies have yielded valuable insights into the development and function of the auditory system, the contribution of gene products and their interaction with alternate environmental factors [...] Read more.
The etiology of hearing impairment is multifactorial, with contributions from both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic studies have yielded valuable insights into the development and function of the auditory system, the contribution of gene products and their interaction with alternate environmental factors for the maintenance and development of auditory function requires further elaboration. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of redox dysregulation as the converging factor between genetic and environmental factor-dependent development of hearing loss, with a focus on understanding the interaction of oxidative stress with the physical components of the peripheral auditory system in auditory disfunction. The potential involvement of molecular factors linked to auditory function in driving redox imbalance is an important promoter of the development of hearing loss over time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Ear Damage)
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34 pages, 1618 KiB  
Review
Bioactive Compounds Protect Mammalian Reproductive Cells from Xenobiotics and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Distress via Nrf2 Signaling Activation: A Narrative Review
by Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Adnan Khan, Bingjian Huang, Ren Wei, Xiyan Kou, Xinrui Wang, Wenting Chen, Liangliang Li, Muhammad Zahoor and Changfa Wang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 597; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050597 - 13 May 2024
Viewed by 701
Abstract
Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the body’s antioxidant defenses. It poses a significant threat to the physiological function of reproductive cells. Factors such as xenobiotics and heat can worsen this stress, [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress occurs when there is an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the body’s antioxidant defenses. It poses a significant threat to the physiological function of reproductive cells. Factors such as xenobiotics and heat can worsen this stress, leading to cellular damage and apoptosis, ultimately decreasing reproductive efficiency. The nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in defending against oxidative stress and protecting reproductive cells via enhancing antioxidant responses. Dysregulation of Nrf2 signaling has been associated with infertility and suboptimal reproductive performance in mammals. Recent advancements in therapeutic interventions have underscored the critical role of Nrf2 in mitigating oxidative damage and restoring the functional integrity of reproductive cells. In this narrative review, we delineate the harmful effects of heat and xenobiotic-induced oxidative stress on reproductive cells and explain how Nrf2 signaling provides protection against these challenges. Recent studies have shown that activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway using various bioactive compounds can ameliorate heat stress and xenobiotic-induced oxidative distress and apoptosis in mammalian reproductive cells. By comprehensively analyzing the existing literature, we propose Nrf2 as a key therapeutic target for mitigating oxidative damage and apoptosis in reproductive cells caused by exposure to xenobiotic exposure and heat stress. Additionally, based on the synthesis of these findings, we discuss the potential of therapies focused on the Nrf2 signaling pathway to improve mammalian reproductive efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Antioxidants for Animal Nutrition—2nd Edition)
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20 pages, 3033 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Antioxidant and Hypolipidemic Properties of Salicornia europaea for the Prevention of TAFLD in Rats
by Aymen Souid, Lucia Giambastiani, Antonella Castagna, Marco Santin, Fabio Vivarelli, Donatella Canistro, Camilla Morosini, Moreno Paolini, Paola Franchi, Marco Lucarini, Andrea Raffaelli, Lucia Giorgetti, Annamaria Ranieri, Vincenzo Longo, Luisa Pozzo and Andrea Vornoli
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050596 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 980
Abstract
Halophyte species represent valuable reservoirs of natural antioxidants, and, among these, Salicornia europaea stands out as a promising edible plant. In this study, young and old S. europaea leaves were compared for the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity to assess changes [...] Read more.
Halophyte species represent valuable reservoirs of natural antioxidants, and, among these, Salicornia europaea stands out as a promising edible plant. In this study, young and old S. europaea leaves were compared for the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity to assess changes in different growth phases; then, the potential protective effects against low-dose CCl4-induced toxicant-associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) were investigated by administering an aqueous suspension of young leaves to rats daily for two weeks. Quantification of total and individual phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity assays (DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC) showed the highest values in young leaves compared to mature ones. Salicornia treatment mitigated CCl4-induced hepatic oxidative stress, reducing lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl levels, and preserving the decrease in glutathione levels. Electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy confirmed these results in the liver and evidenced free radicals increase prevention in the brain. Salicornia treatment also attenuated enzymatic disruptions in the liver’s drug metabolizing system and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, histopathological examination revealed reduced hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Overall, this study highlights Salicornia’s potential as a source of bioactive compounds with effective hepatoprotective properties capable to prevent TAFLD. Full article
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11 pages, 3765 KiB  
Article
Expression of ChAT, Iba-1, and nNOS in the Central Nervous System following Facial Nerve Injury
by Jae Min Lee, Myung Chul Yoo, Yong Jun Kim, Sung Soo Kim and Seung Geun Yeo
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 595; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050595 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Facial nerve injury can cause significant functional impairment, impacting both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The present study evaluated changes in facial motor function, numbers of cholinergic neurons and microglia, and nNOS levels in the facial nucleus of the central nervous system [...] Read more.
Facial nerve injury can cause significant functional impairment, impacting both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The present study evaluated changes in facial motor function, numbers of cholinergic neurons and microglia, and nNOS levels in the facial nucleus of the central nervous system (CNS) following peripheral facial nerve injury. Facial nerve function, as determined by eyeblink and whisker-movement reflexes, was evaluated at baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after inducing facial nerve injury through compression or axotomy. The expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the facial nucleus of the CNS was analyzed 2, 4, and 12 weeks after peripheral facial nerve injury. Compression-induced facial nerve injury was found to lead to temporary facial motor impairment, whereas axotomy resulted in persistent impairment. Moreover, both compression and axotomy reduced ChAT expression and increased Iba-1 and nNOS expression in the facial nucleus, indicating upregulation of an inflammatory response and neurodegeneration. These results indicate that, compared with compression-induced injury, axotomy-induced facial nerve injury results in greater facial motor dysfunction and more persistent microglial and nitric oxide activation in the facial nucleus of the CNS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and the Central Nervous System)
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29 pages, 2656 KiB  
Review
Diabetic Retinopathy: New Treatment Approaches Targeting Redox and Immune Mechanisms
by Qi Tang, Francesco Buonfiglio, Elsa Wilma Böhm, Liyu Zhang, Norbert Pfeiffer, Christina A. Korb and Adrian Gericke
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 594; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050594 - 12 May 2024
Viewed by 1017
Abstract
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) represents a severe complication of diabetes mellitus, characterized by irreversible visual impairment resulting from microvascular abnormalities. Since the global prevalence of diabetes continues to escalate, DR has emerged as a prominent area of research interest. The development and progression of [...] Read more.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) represents a severe complication of diabetes mellitus, characterized by irreversible visual impairment resulting from microvascular abnormalities. Since the global prevalence of diabetes continues to escalate, DR has emerged as a prominent area of research interest. The development and progression of DR encompass a complex interplay of pathological and physiological mechanisms, such as high glucose-induced oxidative stress, immune responses, vascular endothelial dysfunction, as well as damage to retinal neurons. Recent years have unveiled the involvement of genomic and epigenetic factors in the formation of DR mechanisms. At present, extensive research explores the potential of biomarkers such as cytokines, molecular and cell therapies, antioxidant interventions, and gene therapy for DR treatment. Notably, certain drugs, such as anti-VEGF agents, antioxidants, inhibitors of inflammatory responses, and protein kinase C (PKC)-β inhibitors, have demonstrated promising outcomes in clinical trials. Within this context, this review article aims to introduce the recent molecular research on DR and highlight the current progress in the field, with a particular focus on the emerging and experimental treatment strategies targeting the immune and redox signaling pathways. Full article
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22 pages, 4656 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Efficiency of Antioxidants in Inhibiting Lipid Oxidation in Terms of Characteristic Kinetic Parameters
by Sonia Losada-Barreiro, Fátima Paiva-Martins and Carlos Bravo-Díaz
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 593; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050593 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
In this work, we aim to find physical evidence demonstrating the crucial role that the effective concentration of antioxidants (AOs) present at the interfacial region of emulsions has in controlling the inhibition of the lipid oxidation reaction. We prepared a series of antioxidants [...] Read more.
In this work, we aim to find physical evidence demonstrating the crucial role that the effective concentration of antioxidants (AOs) present at the interfacial region of emulsions has in controlling the inhibition of the lipid oxidation reaction. We prepared a series of antioxidants of different hydrophobicities derived from chlorogenic and protocatechuic acids. We first monitored, in intact emulsions, the (sigmoidal) production of conjugated dienes and determined the corresponding induction times, tind. Independently, we determined the effective concentrations of the antioxidants in the same intact emulsions. Results show that both the length of the induction periods and the antioxidant interfacial concentrations parallel each other, with a maximum at the octyl-dodecyl derivatives. The ratio between the interfacial antioxidant concentrations and the induction periods remains constant for all AOs in the same series, so that the rates of initiation of lipid oxidation are the same regardless of the hydrophobicity of the antioxidant employed. The constancy in the rate of initiation provides strong experimental evidence for a direct relationship between interfacial concentrations and antioxidant efficiencies. Results suggest new possibilities to investigate lipid peroxidation under non-forced conditions and are of interest to formulators interested in preparing emulsions with antimicrobial properties. Full article
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15 pages, 3335 KiB  
Article
GDSL Lipase Gene HTA1 Negatively Regulates Heat Tolerance in Rice Seedlings by Regulating Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation
by Rui Su, Jingkai Luo, Yingfeng Wang, Yunhua Xiao, Xiong Liu, Huabing Deng, Xuedan Lu, Qiuhong Chen, Guihua Chen, Wenbang Tang and Guilian Zhang
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 592; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050592 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 544
Abstract
High temperature is a significant environmental stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. GDSL lipase is a hydrolytic enzyme with a conserved GDSL sequence at the N-terminus, which has various biological functions, such as participating in plant growth, development, lipid metabolism, and [...] Read more.
High temperature is a significant environmental stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. GDSL lipase is a hydrolytic enzyme with a conserved GDSL sequence at the N-terminus, which has various biological functions, such as participating in plant growth, development, lipid metabolism, and stress resistance. However, little is known about the function of the GDSL lipase gene in the heat tolerance of rice. Here, we characterized a lipase family protein coding gene HTA1, which was significantly induced by high temperature in rice. Rice seedlings in which the mutant hta1 was knocked out showed enhanced heat tolerance, whereas the overexpressing HTA1 showed more sensitivity to heat stress. Under heat stress, hta1 could reduce plant membrane damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and elevate the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that mutant hta1 significantly activated gene expression in antioxidant enzymes, heat response, and defense. In conclusion, our results suggest that HTA1 negatively regulates heat stress tolerance by modulating the ROS accumulation and the expression of heat-responsive and defense-related genes in rice seedlings. This research will provide a valuable resource for utilizing HTA1 to improve crop heat tolerance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Plants)
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17 pages, 5912 KiB  
Article
Oxidative Stress, Lipid Peroxidation and Ferroptosis Are Major Pathophysiological Signatures in the Placental Tissue of Women with Late-Onset Preeclampsia
by Miguel A. Ortega, Luis M. Garcia-Puente, Oscar Fraile-Martinez, Tatiana Pekarek, Cielo García-Montero, Julia Bujan, Leonel Pekarek, Silvestra Barrena-Blázquez, Raquel Gragera, Inmaculada C. Rodríguez-Rojo, Patrocinio Rodríguez-Benitez, Laura López-González, Raul Díaz-Pedrero, Melchor Álvarez-Mon, Natalio García-Honduvilla, Juan A. De León-Luis, Coral Bravo and Miguel A. Saez
Antioxidants 2024, 13(5), 591; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antiox13050591 - 11 May 2024
Viewed by 697
Abstract
Preeclampsia, a serious and potentially life-threatening medical complication occurring during pregnancy, is characterized by hypertension and often accompanied by proteinuria and multiorgan dysfunction. It is classified into two subtypes based on the timing of diagnosis: early-onset (EO-PE) and late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE). Despite being [...] Read more.
Preeclampsia, a serious and potentially life-threatening medical complication occurring during pregnancy, is characterized by hypertension and often accompanied by proteinuria and multiorgan dysfunction. It is classified into two subtypes based on the timing of diagnosis: early-onset (EO-PE) and late-onset preeclampsia (LO-PE). Despite being less severe and exhibiting distinct pathophysiological characteristics, LO-PE is more prevalent than EO-PE, although both conditions have a significant impact on placental health. Previous research indicates that different pathophysiological events within the placenta may contribute to the development of preeclampsia across multiple pathways. In our experimental study, we investigated markers of oxidative stress, ferroptosis, and lipid peroxidation pathways in placental tissue samples obtained from women with LO-PE (n = 68) compared to healthy control pregnant women (HC, n = 43). Through a comprehensive analysis, we observed an upregulation of specific molecules associated with these pathways, including NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX-1), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX-2), transferrin receptor protein 1 (TFRC), arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (ALOX-5), acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 (ACSL-4), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in women with LO-PE. Furthermore, increased ferric tissue deposition (Fe3+) was observed in placenta samples stained with Perls’ Prussian blue. The assessment involved gene and protein expression analyses conducted through RT-qPCR experiments and immunohistochemistry assays. Our findings underscore the heightened activation of inflammatory pathways in LO-PE compared to HC, highlighting the pathological mechanisms underlying this pregnancy disorder. Full article
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