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Brief Report

Is the Antimicrobial Activity of Hydrolates Lower than That of Essential Oils?

1
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-Alimentari, Università of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin 42, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Biotecnologiche di Base, Cliniche Intensivologiche e Perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze e Politiche Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria, 2, 20133 Milano, Italy
4
Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via P. Gaifami 18, 95126 Catania, Italy
5
Dipartimento di Scienze di Laboratorio e Infettivologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario “A. Gemelli” IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed.
Received: 14 November 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 15 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
Among the top five human infections requiring medical treatment is dermatitis. Treatment of bacterial and fungal skin infections is usually based on antibiotic therapy, which is often ineffective due to the involvement of antibiotic-resistant microbial strains. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) and hydrolates (Hys) extracted from six aromatic plants grown in Italy (Lavandula angustifolia, Lavandula intermedia, Origanum hirtum, Satureja montana, Monarda didyma, and Monarda fistulosa) towards fungal (Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis; Trichophyton soudanense, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton violaceum and Microsporum canis) and bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus MSSA, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. faecalis, Enterococcus faecalis VRE, and Enterococcus faecium) potentially pathogenic for human skin. The composition and antimicrobial activity of EOs and Hys were evaluated using the Gas-chromatography mass spectrometry and micro dilution-broth test, respectively. The volatiles’ conversion factors (CFs) were calculated to compare the activity of Hys with that of the corresponding EOs. Data show that, although the minimum inhibitory concentration values of EOs are lower than the corresponding Hys, the volatiles contained in Hys are more effective at inhibiting microbial growth because they are active at lower concentrations. View Full-Text
Keywords: Satureja montana; Lavandula angustifolia; Lavandula intermedia; Origanum hirtum; Monarda didyma; Monarda fistulosa Satureja montana; Lavandula angustifolia; Lavandula intermedia; Origanum hirtum; Monarda didyma; Monarda fistulosa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Vito, M.; Smolka, A.; Proto, M.R.; Barbanti, L.; Gelmini, F.; Napoli, E.; Bellardi, M.G.; Mattarelli, P.; Beretta, G.; Sanguinetti, M.; Bugli, F. Is the Antimicrobial Activity of Hydrolates Lower than That of Essential Oils? Antibiotics 2021, 10, 88. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010088

AMA Style

Di Vito M, Smolka A, Proto MR, Barbanti L, Gelmini F, Napoli E, Bellardi MG, Mattarelli P, Beretta G, Sanguinetti M, Bugli F. Is the Antimicrobial Activity of Hydrolates Lower than That of Essential Oils? Antibiotics. 2021; 10(1):88. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010088

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Vito, Maura, Antonina Smolka, Maria R. Proto, Lorenzo Barbanti, Fabrizio Gelmini, Edoardo Napoli, Maria G. Bellardi, Paola Mattarelli, Giangiacomo Beretta, Maurizio Sanguinetti, and Francesca Bugli. 2021. "Is the Antimicrobial Activity of Hydrolates Lower than That of Essential Oils?" Antibiotics 10, no. 1: 88. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/antibiotics10010088

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