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Article

Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Suspended Sediments in the Negro River, Amazon Basin, from In Situ and Sentinel-2 Remote Sensing Data

1
Department of Geography, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus 69077-000, Brazil
2
Postgraduation Program CLIAMB, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA)—Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Ave. André Araújo, 2936, Manaus 69060-001, Brazil
3
Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (Centre national de la Recherche Scientifique—CNRS, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement—IRD, Université Paul Sabatier—UPS), 31400 Toulouse, France
4
Department of Geosciences, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus 69077-000, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wolfgang Kainz and Emmanouil Psomiadis
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi10020086
Received: 28 December 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2021 / Accepted: 16 February 2021 / Published: 19 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GIS and Remote Sensing Applications in Geomorphology)
Monitoring suspended sediments through remote sensing data in black-water rivers is a challenge. Herein, remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from in situ measurements and Sentinel-2 Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI) images were used to estimate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) in the largest black-water river of the Amazon basin. The Negro River exhibits extremely low Rrs values (<0.005 sr−1 at visible and near-infrared bands) due to the elevated absorption of coloured dissolved organic matter (aCDOM at 440 nm > 7 m−1) caused by the high amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC > 7 mg L−1) and low SSC (<5 mg L−1). Interannual variability of Rrs is primarily controlled by the input of suspended sediments from the Branco River, which is a clear water river that governs the changes in the apparent optical properties of the Negro River, even at distances that are greater than 90 km from its mouth. Better results were obtained using the Sentinel-2 MSI Red band (Band 4 at 665 nm) in order to estimate the SSC, with an R2 value greater than 0.85 and an error less than 20% in the adjusted models. The magnitudes of water reflectance in the Sentinel-2 MSI Red band were consistent with in situ Rrs measurements, indicating the large spatial variability of the lower SSC values (0 to 15 mg L−1) in a complex anabranching reach of the Negro River. The in situ and satellite data analysed in this study indicates sedimentation processes in the lower Negro River near the Amazon River. The results suggest that the radiometric characteristics of sensors, like sentinel-2 MSI, are suitable for monitoring the suspended sediment concentration in large tropical black-water rivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: inorganic sediment; remote sensing reflectance; black-water river; fluvial archipelago; anabranching; floodplain inorganic sediment; remote sensing reflectance; black-water river; fluvial archipelago; anabranching; floodplain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marinho, R.R.; Harmel, T.; Martinez, J.-M.; Filizola Junior, N.P. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Suspended Sediments in the Negro River, Amazon Basin, from In Situ and Sentinel-2 Remote Sensing Data. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 86. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10020086

AMA Style

Marinho RR, Harmel T, Martinez J-M, Filizola Junior NP. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Suspended Sediments in the Negro River, Amazon Basin, from In Situ and Sentinel-2 Remote Sensing Data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(2):86. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10020086

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marinho, Rogério R., Tristan Harmel, Jean-Michel Martinez, and Naziano P. Filizola Junior 2021. "Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Suspended Sediments in the Negro River, Amazon Basin, from In Situ and Sentinel-2 Remote Sensing Data" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 2: 86. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10020086

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