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Article

Bus Service Level and Horizontal Equity Analysis in the Context of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem

1
Geography Department, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Illes Balears, Spain
2
GIS and Remote Sensing Service, University of the Balearic Islands, 07122 Palma, Illes Balears, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wolfgang Kainz and Giuseppe Borruso
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10(3), 111; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030111
Received: 21 December 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 24 February 2021 / Published: 26 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Optimization and GIS)
The modifiable areal unit problem is of great importance in geographic science. The use of a specific zoning impacts the social and economic imbalances that can be generated in the deployment of services, facilities, and infrastructure. In this article, GIS is used together with simulation and optimization tools to analyse the effects of bus frequency changes in the levels of service and horizontal equity derived from different types of territorial zoning. The city of Palma (Balearic Islands, Spain) was chosen as a case study for the method, for which different geographical areas are used: neighbourhoods, census sections, cadastral blocks, and a 400 × 400 m mesh. The results show significant variations of the optimal frequencies obtained, depending on the type of zoning used. In general, smaller zonings show much higher sensitivity for the detection of imbalances between the population and bus service level. Likewise, orthogonal zonings also prove useful for identifying service and population concentration over other zonings. The use of large spatial units could lead to the misdiagnosis of needs and the implementation of actions that do not actually improve the level of service or the equity of the transport service. It is recommended to consider combining zonings of different sizes simultaneously, in order to accurately highlight imbalances and to argue for transport service improvements. View Full-Text
Keywords: MAUP; equity; Gini coefficient; transport simulation; transport optimization; GIS-T MAUP; equity; Gini coefficient; transport simulation; transport optimization; GIS-T
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Pérez, M.; Seguí-Pons, J.M. Bus Service Level and Horizontal Equity Analysis in the Context of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2021, 10, 111. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030111

AMA Style

Ruiz-Pérez M, Seguí-Pons JM. Bus Service Level and Horizontal Equity Analysis in the Context of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information. 2021; 10(3):111. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030111

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ruiz-Pérez, Maurici, and Joana M. Seguí-Pons 2021. "Bus Service Level and Horizontal Equity Analysis in the Context of the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem" ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10, no. 3: 111. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijgi10030111

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