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Volume 12, January

Educ. Sci., Volume 12, Issue 2 (February 2022) – 86 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): One of the challenges of pandemic teaching has been developing undergraduate bioscience students’ core practical skills when there have been significant limitations to access to laboratory time. Not only this, but first year students face additional challenges in engaging with their courses, as many would not have chosen remote learning were it not for the current situation. This article focuses on the development and lessons learned from an initiative that NTU academics developed which aimed to create opportunities for first-year undergraduate students to develop their skills in pipetting, data handling, experimental design, and microscopy away from the laboratory. This Bioskills at home kit also encouraged them to explore the world around them and build an online community to discuss their experiences. View this paper
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Article
Promoting Equity and Assuring Teaching and Learning Quality: Magisterial Lectures in a Philippine University during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 146; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020146 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
When the COVID-19 pandemic forced universities to shift to online learning, one of the challenges to faculty and administrators was to provide students with high-quality, curriculum-based learning materials that could be accessed despite students’ variable levels of Internet access. Part of the Ateneo [...] Read more.
When the COVID-19 pandemic forced universities to shift to online learning, one of the challenges to faculty and administrators was to provide students with high-quality, curriculum-based learning materials that could be accessed despite students’ variable levels of Internet access. Part of the Ateneo de Manila University’s response to this challenge is the production of the Magisterial Lectures, an Open Educational Resource (OER) series of video lectures by some of the University’s most respected faculty members. The goals of this paper are to describe how the production of the lectures was guided by the principles of quality and equity; to discuss the use and reach of the lectures based on YouTube analytics and a survey of Ateneo students and teachers; and to measure the impact of the lectures on students’ learning experience. We enact quality in terms of curricular alignment and high production value. Equity was achieved by making the resource available publicly, free of charge. We found that the videos reached over 350,000 viewers in 37 countries. A survey of Ateneo students and teachers, the primary beneficiaries, shows that these materials were effective educational tools. Their effectiveness is attributable to the grounding of the production in quality and equity; the teachers’ careful integration of the recordings in their lessons; and the students’ engagement with the lectures following their own learning preferences and strategies. Full article
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Article
Comparability of Feedback in PISA 2015 across Culturally Diverse Countries
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 145; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020145 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 494
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the comparability of feedback across culturally diverse countries by assessing the measurement invariance in PISA 2015 data. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the feedback scale implemented in PISA 2015 was not invariant across [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the comparability of feedback across culturally diverse countries by assessing the measurement invariance in PISA 2015 data. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the feedback scale implemented in PISA 2015 was not invariant across countries. The intercepts and residuals of the factor model were clearly not the same, and the factor loadings also differed. Model fit slightly improved when the more individualism-oriented countries were separated from the more collectivism-oriented countries, but not to an acceptable level. This implies that the feedback results from PISA 2015 have a different meaning across countries, and it is necessary to be careful when making cross-cultural comparisons. However, the absence of measurement invariance did not affect the relationship between feedback and science achievement scores. This means that feedback, as measured by PISA 2015, can be compared across culturally different countries, although the current form of this scale lacks important, culturally specific elements. Full article
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Article
The Bridging Role of Goals between Affective Traits and Positive Creativity
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 144; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020144 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 329
Abstract
Positive creativity training is crucial for 21st century learning, yet the influence of affective traits and goals with different intentions on positive creativity is unclear. We held a creativity training workshop for fifty-four undergraduates to determine its influence. We first assessed participants’ affective [...] Read more.
Positive creativity training is crucial for 21st century learning, yet the influence of affective traits and goals with different intentions on positive creativity is unclear. We held a creativity training workshop for fifty-four undergraduates to determine its influence. We first assessed participants’ affective traits (risk-taking, curiosity, imagination, and complexity) using the Test of Divergent Feeling from the Creativity Assessment Packet. Then, we provided participants with twenty-seven products as inspiration sources for designing novel staplers. Each participant was asked to define a certain design goal, for which they chose one of the inspiration sources to generate ideas. We assessed the novelty of ideas and classified them according to the goals with different intentions. Results showed a bridging role of the goals between affective traits and creativity. This role was reflected in positive correlations between (1) curiosity and novelty with effort-saving goals; (2) complexity and novelty with orderliness goals. In addition, we found participants with high risk-taking tended to set versatility goals; the orderliness goal led to the highest novelty of ideas. Our findings suggested that teachers should pay attention to students’ affective traits and guide them to set goals in positive creativity education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Educating for Positive Creativity)
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Article
Exploring Measurement through Coding: Children’s Conceptions of a Dynamic Linear Unit with Robot Coding Toys
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 143; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020143 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
Programming activities have the potential to provide a rich context for exploring measurement units in early elementary mathematics. This study examines how a small group of young children (ages 5–6) express their emergent conception of a dynamic linear unit and the measurement concepts [...] Read more.
Programming activities have the potential to provide a rich context for exploring measurement units in early elementary mathematics. This study examines how a small group of young children (ages 5–6) express their emergent conception of a dynamic linear unit and the measurement concepts they found challenging. Video of an introductory programming lesson was analyzed for evidence of preconceptions and conceptions of a dynamic linear unit. Using Artifact-Centric Activity Theory as a lens for the analysis, we found that social context, gesturing, and verbal descriptions influenced the children’s understanding of a dynamic linear unit. Challenges that students encountered included developing a constructed conception of a unit, reconciling preconceptions about the meaning of a code, and socially-influenced preconceptions. This study furthers the exploration of computational thinking and mathematics connections and provides a basis for future exploration of dynamic mathematics and programming learning in early elementary education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEM in Early Childhood Education)
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Article
Students’ Performance in Physical Education: The Role of Differential Achievement Goals and Self-Regulated Learning
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 142; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020142 - 21 Feb 2022
Viewed by 712
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between differential achievement goals and self-regulated learning, as well as motivational mechanisms’ consequences for performance in physical education. This was done by using the 2 × 2 achievement goals framework, and the cyclical [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between differential achievement goals and self-regulated learning, as well as motivational mechanisms’ consequences for performance in physical education. This was done by using the 2 × 2 achievement goals framework, and the cyclical model for self-regulated learning. The participants (N = 571, 51.7% girls) were physical education students in grades 11–13 from two upper secondary schools in Norway. A cross-sectional questionnaire was conducted, and data were analysed with a multiple-regression-based structural equation model. The modified structural model yielded an adequate fit (X2 = [df = 124] 429.79, p < 0.01; RMSEA = 0.07; CFI = 0.93), and results revealed that achievement goals have consequences for students’ self-regulation in physical education. More specifically, mastery goals have a positive association with self-regulation, whereas performance avoidance is found to have a negative association. Further, the results support claims that self-regulated learning plays a role in students’ performance. Finally, the model showed that self-regulation mediates the relationship between mastery approach goals and performance avoidance goals in relation to performance. Full article
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Article
An Integrative Literature Review of University-Based Early Childhood Education and Care Centres within Early Childhood Teacher Education Settings
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 141; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020141 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 750
Abstract
This research is an integrative literature review regarding the variety of university-based early childhood education and care (ECEC) centre models. This research focuses on those models that collaborate closely with early childhood (EC) teacher education programmes. The data were gathered from three different [...] Read more.
This research is an integrative literature review regarding the variety of university-based early childhood education and care (ECEC) centre models. This research focuses on those models that collaborate closely with early childhood (EC) teacher education programmes. The data were gathered from three different databases: ERIC (Ebscohost), Education Research Complete (Ebscohost) and ProQuest Central by using six different search terms. A total of 2766 publications were found. Based on the inclusion criteria, 40 publications were included in a data analysis. These publications consisted of descriptions of 53 different models regarding the collaboration between ECEC centres and universities. Two out of three models (n = 34) were university-based ECEC centres that collaborated closely with EC teacher education programmes by implementing various collaborations in education and research in their daily work. Outreach efforts were also implemented. This research invites EC teacher education programmes and ECEC centres for international collaboration and further research on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Teacher Education)
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Article
The Future of Design Studio Education: Student Experience and Perception of Blended Learning and Teaching during the Global Pandemic
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 140; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020140 - 20 Feb 2022
Viewed by 725
Abstract
Urban design studio education aims to prepare future urban designers to more effectively understand how cities work and critically engage with the role of design intervention in the built environment. A design studio is an appropriate setting where this can take place. This [...] Read more.
Urban design studio education aims to prepare future urban designers to more effectively understand how cities work and critically engage with the role of design intervention in the built environment. A design studio is an appropriate setting where this can take place. This paper details the design and delivery of a postgraduate urban design studio subject in the MA Urban Design programme at Cardiff University during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK. We particularly investigate the capacities and challenges of blended learning and teaching, with a primary focus on the experience and perception of students in the context of design studio pedagogy. To this end, we discuss the findings from an online survey of postgraduate urban design students and reflect on their experience and perception of the related learning and teaching activities, assessment, feedback, field study visits, workshops, and digital platforms during the subject delivery period in the 2021–2022 academic year. The outcomes of this paper can inform future practices of blended learning and teaching incorporating a mix of face-to-face and online modes of delivery in relation to design studio education, particularly in the context of unprecedented global health challenges such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Full article
Article
Lecturer Competence from the Perspective of Undergraduate Psychology Students: A Qualitative Pilot Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 139; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020139 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 334
Abstract
Understanding what students mean by lecturer competence can be crucial in order to recognise indicators with which to assess these competences, improve the quality of university teaching and support lecturers in undertaking their role appropriately. This qualitative pilot study aimed to explore the [...] Read more.
Understanding what students mean by lecturer competence can be crucial in order to recognise indicators with which to assess these competences, improve the quality of university teaching and support lecturers in undertaking their role appropriately. This qualitative pilot study aimed to explore the meaning of competence in a convenience sample of Italian undergraduate psychology students (N = 122). We collected free-associations about what “lecturer competence” actually means for the students. The data corpus underwent a lexical Correspondence Analysis (CA) using the ASPAR procedure of SPAD-T. Two factors were extracted: “socio-emotional dimension” and “task specialist.” Students associated the competent lecturer with those who was involved with the achievement of the task goals, on the one hand or those who was engaged in the group’s maintenance, on the other. Furthermore, Cluster Analysis identified four clusters: (1) the captivating lecturer; (2) the lecturer oriented to both task and socio-emotional aspects; (3) the rigorous lecturer; and (4) the benevolent lecturer. The preliminary results of this pilot study showed an articulated and multi-dimensional representation of the meanings of lecturer competence from the students’ point of view and lay the foundations for a broader quantitative study on the conceptions concerning lecturer competence. Full article
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Systematic Review
Teachers’ Attitudes toward Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 138; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020138 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 778
Abstract
(1) Teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mainstream schools influence daily educational practices. Depending on whether these attitudes are favorable or not, inclusive education could be fully or partially reached. This systematic review aims to analyze [...] Read more.
(1) Teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in mainstream schools influence daily educational practices. Depending on whether these attitudes are favorable or not, inclusive education could be fully or partially reached. This systematic review aims to analyze teachers’ attitudes toward ASD and to determine the variables that moderate them. (2) We conducted a systematic review in WoS, Scopus, and PsycINFO databases, obtaining an amount of 16 studies included in this review. (3) The results revealed inconclusive levels in teachers’ attitudes: Some of the teachers reported positive attitudes, some neutral, and some negative. (4) Among the variables that probably moderate attitudes, we found knowledge, experience, training, and gender. Future research and implications for pre-service and in-service teachers, school administrators, and policy makers are suggested. Full article
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Review
What’s in Your Culture? Embracing Stability and the New Digital Age in Moving Colleges of Health Professions Virtually during the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Experiential Narrative Review
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020137 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 746
Abstract
As traditional education transitioned from face-to-face interactions to virtual learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, faculty and staff in dental hygiene, nursing, and exercise science programs placed students at the center of every educational decision and promoted stability in learning with their commitments to [...] Read more.
As traditional education transitioned from face-to-face interactions to virtual learning during the COVID-19 pandemic, faculty and staff in dental hygiene, nursing, and exercise science programs placed students at the center of every educational decision and promoted stability in learning with their commitments to excellence in teaching and the delivery of content using educational and communication technology. This experiential narrative review explains how faculty members and administrators addressed online education with technology specific to health professions and how universities managed to assist students with innovative services for mental health. It also provides an insight into how degree-specific academic personnel embraced technology-based hands-on activities in community health clinics and clinical laboratories, with sustainable and impactful lessons in equity, affordability, and transformative education. Finally, health administrators gather their top-10 leadership recommendations to continue moving forward during the pandemic and present a unique self-reflection on the process of caring considerations required for a successful experience for faculty members, staff, and students. Full article
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Essay
From PKU Online Lessons for Dietetics Students to the PKU Sandwiches Album
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 136; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020136 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 558
Abstract
The purpose of the manuscript is to present to academic teachers, doctors and nutritionists how practical online classes with dietetics students can be used to develop ready-made tools at work and for the education of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients and their caregivers/parents. During online [...] Read more.
The purpose of the manuscript is to present to academic teachers, doctors and nutritionists how practical online classes with dietetics students can be used to develop ready-made tools at work and for the education of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients and their caregivers/parents. During online classes in 2020, as part of the subject—diet therapy of metabolic blocks, 53 students prepared PKU sandwiches at home. Each PKU sandwich has a calculated nutritional value, and phenylalanine exchanger content, but does not include low-protein bread. The selection of a particular type of PKU bread depends solely on the PKU patient, hence it was deliberately not included in the calculations. The sandwiches, made by students and assessed by academic teachers, will be published with the following title “The PKU Sandwiches Album”. The Album with more than 400 colorful pictures of PKU sandwiches, will be expected to inspire patients and help them add appeal to their diet, enriching it with new tastes, at the same time facilitating the memorizing process of ingredients, thanks to visualization and presented calculations, and motivating them to comply with strict dietary recommendation. The same nutritional calculations and ideas for sandwiches, with the use of different bread, e.g., gluten-free, may be useful in other diseases, such as celiac disease. Full article
Article
A Study on the Effects of Digital Learning Sheet Design Strategy on the Learning Motivation and Learning Outcomes of Museum Exhibition Visitors
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 135; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020135 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 552
Abstract
This study focuses on “digital learning sheets” by exploring the effects of different design strategies of the digital learning sheet on visitors’ motivation and learning outcomes. This study chose the woodcraft themed exhibition as a case study, adopting the learning sheet design principles [...] Read more.
This study focuses on “digital learning sheets” by exploring the effects of different design strategies of the digital learning sheet on visitors’ motivation and learning outcomes. This study chose the woodcraft themed exhibition as a case study, adopting the learning sheet design principles proposed by Hooper-Greenhill in order to design three types of digital learning sheets for this exhibition. A control group of students who did not use the sheets and three experimental groups of students who used the sheets were invited to visit the exhibition for the purpose of examining the impact of different strategies of digital learning sheet design on the “learning motivation” and “learning outcomes” of the visitors. The study results show that among the four learning motivations of Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction, the digital learning sheet designed with the “principle of sensory exploration of physical objects” had the highest effectiveness among the various design strategies. In terms of three aspects of learning outcomes: Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor, the three types of digital learning design strategies do not produce significant differences in the affective impact on children. As for Cognitive and Psychomotor, students learn best when they use digital learning sheets designed with the “design principle of sensory and exploration of physical objects”. The results of this study will provide future exhibition planners, digital learning designers, and educators with precise and practical references. Full article
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Systematic Review
A Systematic Review of the Effects of Physical Activity on Specific Academic Skills of School Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 134; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020134 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 409
Abstract
This systematic review examined the effects of distinct physical activity interventions on the academic achievement of school students based on an analysis of four distinct outcomes: mathematics, language, reading, and composite scores. This study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and [...] Read more.
This systematic review examined the effects of distinct physical activity interventions on the academic achievement of school students based on an analysis of four distinct outcomes: mathematics, language, reading, and composite scores. This study was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines and the QUORUM statement. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed-MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Peer-reviewed studies published in English, Portuguese, and Spanish were considered. A random-effect meta-analysis was employed to determine the effect of interventions on academic performance. The effects between interventions and control groups were expressed as standardized mean differences. Thirty-one studies were included in the meta-analysis based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The exercise programs were not capable of significantly improving language, reading skills, and composite scores. Conversely, performance in math tests increased significantly after the interventions compared with the control groups. Regarding the overall effect, a significant improvement in academic achievement was detected after physical activity programs compared with controls. In conclusion, the positive effects of school-based physical education on academic performance are not uniform and may be higher for math skills. The implementation of evidence-based exercise programs in school settings emerges as a promising strategy to increase overall academic achievement in school-aged students. Full article
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Article
Teaching Mathematics with Technology: TPACK and Effective Teaching Practices
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020133 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 631
Abstract
This paper examines how 17 secondary mathematics teacher candidates (TCs) in four university teacher preparation programs implemented technology in their classrooms to teach for conceptual understanding in online, hybrid, and face to face classes during COVID-19. Using the Professional Development: Research, Implementation, and [...] Read more.
This paper examines how 17 secondary mathematics teacher candidates (TCs) in four university teacher preparation programs implemented technology in their classrooms to teach for conceptual understanding in online, hybrid, and face to face classes during COVID-19. Using the Professional Development: Research, Implementation, and Evaluation (PrimeD) framework, TCs, classroom mentor teachers, field experience supervisors, and university faculty formed a Networked Improvement Community (NIC) to discuss a commonly agreed upon problem of practice and a change idea to implement in the classroom. Through Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, participants documented their improvement efforts and refinements to the change idea and then reported back to the NIC at the subsequent monthly meeting. The Technology Pedagogical Content Knowledge framework (TPACK) and the TPACK levels rubric were used to examine how teacher candidates implemented technology for Mathematics conceptual understanding. The Mathematics Classroom Observation Protocol for Practices (MCOP2) was used to further examine how effective mathematics teaching practices (e.g., student engagement) were implemented by TCs. MCOP2 results indicated that TCs increased their use of effective mathematics teaching practices. However, growth in TPACK was not significant. A relationship between TPACK and MCOP2 was not evident, indicating a potential need for explicit focus on using technology for mathematics conceptual understanding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Using Technology in Teaching Mathematics)
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Article
Does It Make a Difference? Relations of Institutional Frameworks and the Regional Provision of Continuing Higher Education in England and Spain
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 132; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020132 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 460
Abstract
In this research, we compare interrelations between institutional settings and regional provision structures of continuing higher education (CHE) in England and Spain. The aim of the qualitative analysis is to identify and to compare country-specific linkages between national and regional policies, legal and [...] Read more.
In this research, we compare interrelations between institutional settings and regional provision structures of continuing higher education (CHE) in England and Spain. The aim of the qualitative analysis is to identify and to compare country-specific linkages between national and regional policies, legal and financial regulations and their impact on providers, types of provision and target groups of CHE at the regional level. Theoretical assumptions of educational governance, environmental neo-institutionalism, and the sociology of conventions guide the analysis, based on expert interviews in England and Spain. Our research questions are: What modes of coordination of action to provide CHE are caused by national and regional regulations in England and Spain? How are these actions justified, and how do they influence regional CHE provision types and target groups in both countries? Interview-based findings show that national and regional regulations embrace hybrid modes of coordination of action regarding CHE provision in both countries. Specifically, centralised national policies in England and a mixture of centralised and decentralised legal frameworks in Spain impact regional CHE provision by universities, as does the scope of university autonomy in both countries. However, national frameworks only explain regional disparities in CHE provision to a limited extent. Less formal normative dimensions and social orders of university orientations and labour market demands also influence regional types of provision, concepts, provider cooperation, and adult CHE learners. Full article
Article
Flipping the Classroom in Senior High School Textile Education to Enhance Students’ Learning Achievement and Self-Efficacy
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020131 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 660
Abstract
The study analysed the impact of the flipped classroom (FC) approach on weaving experience, self-efficacy and students’ learning achievement. To achieve this purpose, a quasi-experimental (pre-test/post-test) design, with a control group and an experimental group, was implemented. A mixed methods approach was used [...] Read more.
The study analysed the impact of the flipped classroom (FC) approach on weaving experience, self-efficacy and students’ learning achievement. To achieve this purpose, a quasi-experimental (pre-test/post-test) design, with a control group and an experimental group, was implemented. A mixed methods approach was used to evaluate the outcomes of the intervention. Forty- four first year senior high school students of an elective textile education subject participated in the study. An academic achievement test and a semi-structured group interview were employed as data-gathering instruments. Descriptive and inferential statistics (parametric and nonparametric tests), as well as thematic analysis were used to analyse the data collected. Findings of the study indicated that, regarding the acquisition of skill set and the maintenance of academic achievement, the students in the treatment group taught using the FC approach obtained higher levels of achievement juxtaposed with the students in the control group tutored with a traditional teacher-centred approach. The study further established that a flipped-classroom approach was engaging, interactive and exciting for students. The students in the experimental group, via the qualitative inquiry, expressed satisfaction with the practice in weaving and felt elevated in their knowledge, attitudes, self-learning, problem-solving and critical thinking skills acquisition. Therefore, the study recommended that the school adopt the FC approach as a method of teaching studio-based Visual Art subjects to support instructional hours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Digital and Flipped Classrooms)
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Article
Parents as Nomads: Journeys, In-Betweenness and Identity
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 130; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020130 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 553
Abstract
When considering the parent voice as an individual subjective reality, it is observed as unique to the parent and not shared by others. This research sought to explore if parent voices could constitute intersubjective realities; inviting narratives from parents and professionals that may [...] Read more.
When considering the parent voice as an individual subjective reality, it is observed as unique to the parent and not shared by others. This research sought to explore if parent voices could constitute intersubjective realities; inviting narratives from parents and professionals that may reveal a shared existence. The first theme explored the journeys of the parent as a nomad in their search for services to support their children. The second theme describes the position of the parent during the period of their child’s assessment, diagnosis and intervention, as that of ‘in-betweenness’. The third theme describes parents’ experiences as those of journeys, during which their identities change. Qualitative, in-depth, longitudinal case studies were undertaken with parents of young children with ASD and professionals over eighteen months. Semi-structured interviews (n-83) were conducted. Autoethnography was critical as a methodological tenet in defense of a position that states that research is an extension of our lives. The findings of this research show evidence of parental isolation and marginalization when procuring services for their children or when children failed to experience inclusion. This research suggests that nomads navigate (difficult) ways of forming new multiple selves and identities. Full article
Editorial
Blended Learning and Teaching in Higher Education: An International Perspective
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020129 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 609
Abstract
Blended learning is not a new topic for educational research in Higher Education (HE) [...] Full article
Article
Case Study: Teaching with Industry (TWI) Using New Videoconferencing Technology and Innovative Classroom Setups
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 128; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020128 - 16 Feb 2022
Viewed by 559
Abstract
This paper describes a case study of a novel teaching method where the “Teaching with Industry” (TWI) model–industry practitioners incorporated as co-instructors in a semester-long classroom setting–is enhanced by using new videoconferencing technologies such as Zoom and Meeting Owl Pro, and innovative classroom [...] Read more.
This paper describes a case study of a novel teaching method where the “Teaching with Industry” (TWI) model–industry practitioners incorporated as co-instructors in a semester-long classroom setting–is enhanced by using new videoconferencing technologies such as Zoom and Meeting Owl Pro, and innovative classroom setups. This enhanced model was developed with the intent to bridge the gap between information acquired in the classroom and the skills and competencies required in the industry. The different teaching platforms not only facilitated the teaching when industry practitioners were/are not able to be physically present in the classroom, but also led to efficient organization of the different activities carried out in class. Results obtained from end-course surveys showed that students had a positive experience using Zoom and Meeting Owl Pro welcoming the opportunity to engage with industry practitioners and gain better understanding of the practical usefulness of the course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Classroom and School Learning Environments)
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Article
Cognitive Training in the Domain of Mathematics for Potentially Gifted Children in Primary School
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 127; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020127 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 664
Abstract
This study examined auditive and visual working memory and metacognitive knowledge in 92 gifted children (aged between eight and twelve), utilising a pre-test-training-post-test design, known as the cognitive training design. This approach was used to examine the working memory and metacognitive knowledge of [...] Read more.
This study examined auditive and visual working memory and metacognitive knowledge in 92 gifted children (aged between eight and twelve), utilising a pre-test-training-post-test design, known as the cognitive training design. This approach was used to examine the working memory and metacognitive knowledge of gifted children concerning the progression after a cognitive training programme in arithmetical problem solving, taking into account the role of intelligence. Children were allocated to one of two experimental conditions: children received training after the pre-test (cognitive training condition) or were provided with training after the post-test (control condition). The results show that all children made significant improvements in working memory and metacognition. Intelligence significantly predicted verbal and visual working memory. However, we did not find a meaningful relationship between intelligence and metacognitive knowledge. The cognitive training in arithmetical problem solving seems to bring additional measurable changes in metacognitive knowledge, but not in working memory. Full article
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Article
Early Critical Thinking in a Mandarin-Speaking Child: An Exploratory Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 126; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020126 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 575
Abstract
Critical thinking in children is a growing concern for early childhood educators; however, few studies have examined children’s critical thinking in an out-of-class context. This case study aimed toward filling this research gap by examining the critical thinking of a Mandarin-speaking child aged [...] Read more.
Critical thinking in children is a growing concern for early childhood educators; however, few studies have examined children’s critical thinking in an out-of-class context. This case study aimed toward filling this research gap by examining the critical thinking of a Mandarin-speaking child aged 5 years and 8 months in an out-of-class context. The child’s natural utterances produced in free conversation and story-readings have been audio- and video-taped twice a week over two months. The recordings have been transcribed and analyzed according to the Delphi Report and ‘level of questions’ to examine the child’s critical thinking level. Findings revealed that the child demonstrated critical thinking, and two indicators, ‘spontaneous statements’ and ‘continuous questions’, reflected children’s critical thinking level. It also found that these categories were reasonable and practical to identify young children’s critical thinking levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Early Childhood Education)
Article
Developing Transversal Competencies in the Sociodramatic Space: Narrative of a Curricular Experience in Higher Education
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020125 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Higher Education plays a decisive role in the training of competent professionals and active, responsible and critical-thinking citizens. In addition to acquiring rigorous technical–scientific knowledge specific to their degree, students are also expected to develop a range of transversal skills essential for a [...] Read more.
Higher Education plays a decisive role in the training of competent professionals and active, responsible and critical-thinking citizens. In addition to acquiring rigorous technical–scientific knowledge specific to their degree, students are also expected to develop a range of transversal skills essential for a successful academic and professional career. This article aims to narrate an experience of obtaining a Social Education degree. Since its origins, it has been assumed that students in this field should: (a) acquire specific technical–scientific knowledge; (b) get to know themselves as individuals; and (c) develop a set of transversal skills essential to relationships, some of the most salient being active listening, empathic capacity, acceptance and respect for others, trust, curiosity, creativity, confidentiality and a reflective attitude. It thus aggregates a set of Curricular Units whose main purpose is the personal, social and professional development of students, formed within active methodologies. Sociodrama is one such methodology of teaching and learning in the context of two Curricular Units of this degree, and this article focuses on my experience lived within the scope of these units. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transversal Competencies, Higher Education and Employment)
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Article
An Italian Adaptation of the Burnout Assessment Tool-Core Symptoms (BAT-C) for Students
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 124; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020124 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 585
Abstract
Burnout is psychological, physical, and emotional suffering that may affect students with low or inadequate resources to face stressful events at school. Although the existing instruments are used worldwide to assess school burnout risk, they show several flaws and mainly focus on the [...] Read more.
Burnout is psychological, physical, and emotional suffering that may affect students with low or inadequate resources to face stressful events at school. Although the existing instruments are used worldwide to assess school burnout risk, they show several flaws and mainly focus on the emotional facets of the syndrome. No previous studies have developed a multi-component tool to reveal students’ burnout by simultaneously analyzing cognitive, behavioral, and emotional problems. The central core of the current study is to adapt the Burnout Assessment Tool-Core symptoms (BAT-C; Schaufeli et al., 2020), comprising four subscales, exhaustion, mental distance, cognitive impairment, and emotional impairment, for a sample of Italian students. The factor structure, the reliability, and the validity of the scale are investigated. The participants are 745 middle school students (male, 52.2%; aged 9–13, M = 11.84, and SD = 1.21). Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the best fit of the second-order model (four first-order factors and one second-order factor). Specifically, four factors were loaded onto a main high-order factor, which constitutes the BAT-C. Our findings support the Italian adaptation of the BAT-C for students’ samples as a valid instrument for measuring the core symptoms of school burnout. Full article
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Article
The Post-Pandemic Lecture: Views from Academic Staff across the UK
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 123; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020123 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1007
Abstract
COVID-19 forced the closure of UK universities. One effect of this was a change in how lectures, and their recordings, were made and used. In this research, we aimed to address two related research questions. Firstly, we aimed to understand how UK universities [...] Read more.
COVID-19 forced the closure of UK universities. One effect of this was a change in how lectures, and their recordings, were made and used. In this research, we aimed to address two related research questions. Firstly, we aimed to understand how UK universities replaced in-person lectures and, secondly, to establish what academic staff believed the post-pandemic lecture would look like. In a mixed-methods study, we collected anonymous quantitative and qualitative data from 87 academics at 36 UK institutions. Analysis revealed that respondents recognised the value and importance of interactive teaching and indicated that the post-pandemic lecture would and should make greater use of this. Data also revealed positive views of lecture capture, in contrast to pre-pandemic studies, and demonstrated that staff recognised their value for those who were unable to attend, or who had specific learning differences. However, staff also recognised the value of asynchronous lecture videos within a blended or flipped approach. This study provides evidence that the pandemic has engendered changes in attitudes and practices within UK higher education that are conducive to educational reform. Full article
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Education Sciences in 2021
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020122 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 502
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Article
Belonging in Science: Democratic Pedagogies for Cross-Cultural PhD Supervision
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020121 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 580
Abstract
This research used Novakian concept mapping and interview techniques to track changes in knowledge and understanding amongst students and their supervisors in the course of full-time research towards a laboratory science-based PhD. This detailed longitudinal case study analysis measures both cognitive change in [...] Read more.
This research used Novakian concept mapping and interview techniques to track changes in knowledge and understanding amongst students and their supervisors in the course of full-time research towards a laboratory science-based PhD. This detailed longitudinal case study analysis measures both cognitive change in the specific subjects that are the topic for research, and the understanding of the process of PhD level research and supervision. The data show the challenges for students and supervisors from different national, ethnic, cultural, and academic backgrounds and traditions with a focus on how this impacts the PhD research process and development. Working cross-culturally, and often in a setting different from either the student or the supervisor’s background and training, can lead to a lack of common language and understanding for the development of a pedagogically oriented supervisory relationship. Documenting change in knowledge and understanding among PhD students and their supervisors is key to surfacing what the joint processes of mutual democratic research and of supervision may entail. This study explores how one of these key processes is a student’s developing sense of belonging (or non-belonging). Specifically, this paper engages the concepts of belonging, and democratic education through mutual learning, to explore the practices of working across national, cultural, ethnic, and diverse academic backgrounds, for both supervisors and students. Doctoral study is understood as a situated context in which belonging also acts as a gateway for who can join the global scientific community. Full article
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Article
Digital Learning Environment Values of Pre-Service Teachers as a Basis for Successful Professional Self-Realisation: A Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 120; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020120 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 606
Abstract
The paper analyses the value mindsets of pre-service teachers in terms of the digital learning environment (DLE). DLE is considered to be both a system of new tools and methods for teaching activity and a prospective educational eco-system for learning. The DLE value [...] Read more.
The paper analyses the value mindsets of pre-service teachers in terms of the digital learning environment (DLE). DLE is considered to be both a system of new tools and methods for teaching activity and a prospective educational eco-system for learning. The DLE value model is based on a psychodidactic approach, which concerns three main constructs—digital content values, communication values, and management values. The research involved 200 pre-service teachers who were asked to complete a questionnaire, evaluating 27 DLE values and opportunities. The results show that pre-service teachers value digital learning content but are not sufficiently ready for its creation; they develop tolerance in communication yet do not have enough skills to show empathy; they appreciate independence in learning management and still need training in professional digital self-presentation. Consequently, professional training and especially internships for pre-service teachers should include a synthesis of traditional (face-to-face) and virtual communication and interaction with children to facilitate mastering an expanded set of competencies for successful professional self-realisation. The findings can be beneficial in terms of e-learning practices, DLE design, and the organisation of internships. Full article
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Article
Difference in Executive Functions Development Level between Two Groups: Preschool Children Who Took Extra Music Classes in Art Schools and Children Who Took Only General Music and Dance Classes Offered by Preschools
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020119 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 577
Abstract
Previous studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between attending music classes regularly and the development of executive functions. This paper discusses the results of a pilot study dedicated to determining the difference in the level of development of the components [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between attending music classes regularly and the development of executive functions. This paper discusses the results of a pilot study dedicated to determining the difference in the level of development of the components of executive functions (inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory), between 5–6-year-old children taking extra music classes, and children who participated only in general music and dance education in kindergarten. A total of 94 senior preschoolers from Moscow kindergartens took part in the study. Children were selected into an “extra music lessons” group and a “general preschool music and dance lessons” group based on the results of a questionnaire on supplementary education, which was filled in by parents prior to the research starting. The respondents from the “extra music and dance lessons” group attended music classes in art schools at least two times a week, both in individual and group formats. The current study revealed that children attending regular extra music classes had a higher level of inhibitory control, audio–verbal working memory, cognitive flexibility, and general coordination of the development of all executive functions. The obtained results support the value of regular extra music classes at preschool age. Moreover, this pilot study allows us to articulate the recommendations for further research in this direction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Early Childhood Education)
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Article
Exploring Preschool Data Collection and Analysis: A Pilot Study
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020118 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Data collection and analysis (DCA) skills apply mathematical knowledge, such as counting, sorting, and classifying, to investigations of real-world questions. This pursuit lays the foundation for learners to develop flexible problem-solving skills with data. This pilot study tested a preschool intervention intended to [...] Read more.
Data collection and analysis (DCA) skills apply mathematical knowledge, such as counting, sorting, and classifying, to investigations of real-world questions. This pursuit lays the foundation for learners to develop flexible problem-solving skills with data. This pilot study tested a preschool intervention intended to support teachers in promoting young children’s DCA skills using a technology-integrated approach. A key component therein was a teacher-facing digital app that facilitated collaboration between preschool teachers and children to more easily collect data, create simple graphs, and use graphed data to engage in real-world questions and discussions. As part of a design-based research approach, this study tested the intervention’s developmental appropriateness and feasibility in four preschool classrooms (n = 5). Findings suggest that the intervention curriculum (i.e., investigations) and inclusion of the app supported teachers and children to answer data-focused questions by engaging in each step of the DCA process while applying numerous mathematics skills. Teachers reported that the app complemented curricular implementation and children demonstrated readiness to engage with, and benefit from, the investigations. Findings also indicated the developmental appropriateness and feasibility of applying this DCA approach in preschools and suggest further study of the approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue STEM in Early Childhood Education)
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Correction
Correction: Hauck et al. Molecular Orbital Theory—Teaching a Difficult Chemistry Topic Using a CSCL Approach in a First-Year University Course. Educ. Sci. 2021, 11, 485
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 117; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/educsci12020117 - 10 Feb 2022
Viewed by 396
Abstract
Andreas Steffen was not included as an author in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry Education and the 21st Century Skills)
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