Non-coding RNA were previously thought to be biologically useless molecules arising from simple transcriptional noise. These are now known to be an integral part of cellular biology and pathology. The wide range of RNA molecules have a diverse range of structures, functions, and mechanisms of action. However, structural long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a particular class of ncRNA that are proving themselves more and more important in cellular biology, as the exact structures that such RNAs form and stabilise become more understood. Nuclear Enriched Abundant Transcript 1 (NEAT1) is a specific structural RNA emerging as a critical component in the progress and development of cancer. NEAT1 forms part of multiple biological pathways, acting through a diverse group of mechanisms. The most important of these is the formation of the paraspeckle, through which it can influence the stability of a tumour to develop resistance to drugs. This review will thus cover the range of effects by which NEAT1 interacts with cancer progression in order to describe the various roles of NEAT1 in chemoresistance, as well as to identify drug targets that protein research alone could not provide.
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