Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of non-protein coding RNAs with lengths of more than 200 nucleotides, exert their effects by binding to DNA, mRNA, microRNA, and proteins and regulate gene expression at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels. Depending on cellular location, lncRNAs are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including chromatin modification, transcriptional activation, transcriptional interference, scaffolding and regulation of translational machinery. This review highlights recent studies on lncRNAs in the regulation of protein translation by modulating the translational factors (i.e, eIF4E, eIF4G, eIF4A, 4E-BP1, eEF5A) and signaling pathways involved in this process as wells as their potential roles as tumor suppressors or tumor promoters.
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