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Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Delivery of Biologicals and Therapeutics: A Cutting-Edge Technology

1
Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi 284128, India
2
Faculty of Medical & Paramedical Sciences, Madhyanchal Professional University, Bhopal 462044, India
3
Department of Chemistry, Bipin Bihari College, Jhansi 284003, India
4
Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, 20520 Turku, Finland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 31 January 2021 / Accepted: 2 February 2021 / Published: 5 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Carbons and Carbides: Bioapplications and Beyond)
After hydrogen and oxygen, carbon is the third most abundant component present in the cosmos with excellent characteristic features of binding to itself and nearly all elements. Since ancient times, carbon-based materials such as graphite, charcoal, and carbon black have been utilized for writing and drawing materials. As these materials possess excellent chemical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal features, they have been readily engineered into carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) such as carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, graphene quantum dots, nanodiamonds, fullerenes, carbon nano-onions, and so forth. These materials are now widely explored in biomedical applications. Thus, the emergence of CNMs has opened up a gateway for the detection, delivery, and treatment of a multitude of diseases. They are being actively researched for applications within tissue engineering, as vaccine vectors, and for the delivery of therapeutics to the immune system. This review focuses on the recent advances in various types of CNMs, their fabrication techniques, and their application in the delivery of therapeutics both in vitro and in vivo. The review also focuses on the toxicity concern of the CNMs and the possible remedies to tackle the toxicity issues. Concluding remarks emphasize all the CNMs discussed in the review over their possible biomedical applications, while the future perspectives section discusses the approaches to bring CNMs into the mainstream of clinical trials and their therapeutic applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; graphene oxide; graphene quantum dots; fullerenes; nanodiamonds; carbon nano-onions; drug delivery carbon nanotubes; graphene oxide; graphene quantum dots; fullerenes; nanodiamonds; carbon nano-onions; drug delivery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mahor, A.; Singh, P.P.; Bharadwaj, P.; Sharma, N.; Yadav, S.; Rosenholm, J.M.; Bansal, K.K. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Delivery of Biologicals and Therapeutics: A Cutting-Edge Technology. C 2021, 7, 19. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010019

AMA Style

Mahor A, Singh PP, Bharadwaj P, Sharma N, Yadav S, Rosenholm JM, Bansal KK. Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Delivery of Biologicals and Therapeutics: A Cutting-Edge Technology. C. 2021; 7(1):19. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010019

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mahor, Alok; Singh, Prem P.; Bharadwaj, Peeyush; Sharma, Neeraj; Yadav, Surabhi; Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Bansal, Kuldeep K. 2021. "Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Delivery of Biologicals and Therapeutics: A Cutting-Edge Technology" C 7, no. 1: 19. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c7010019

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