Next Article in Journal
Black Caviar Perturbs Reflection of Russian Geography: A Research Note of Aquaculture-Triggered Place Naming Puzzle
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Dissolved Potassium on Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Welfare of Juvenile African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus)
Article

Mechanism of Delayed Convulsion in Fish: The Actions of Norepinephrine in Spinal Cord

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maria Angeles Esteban
Received: 27 February 2021 / Revised: 28 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
Cranial spiking (CS) is among the most popular slaughtering methods for delaying the rigor mortis progress of fish muscles. However, it may cause a convulsion (subsequently referred to as delayed convulsion), which undermines the meat quality and taste. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the delayed convulsion and examine its influence on ATP consumption. Ten carps, nine tilapias, ten rainbow trouts, two ayus, three greenling, thirty-five red seabreams, two striped jack and two stone flounders underwent CS around the medulla oblongata area, which induced different delayed convulsion profiles specific to each species. To investigate the norepinephrine (NE) actions related to delayed convulsion, 27 red seabreams, a representative fish species that exhibits delayed convulsion, were treated with a monoamine-depleting agent, reserpine, or with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline, two hours before CS. Spinal cord destruction (SCD) was employed to completely prevent spinal cord functions of the fish in another group. Compared with the control group (CS only), the reserpine, pargyline, and SCD groups showed significantly inhibited delayed convulsion and ATP consumption. This suggests that delayed convulsion is the main ATP-consuming response. Our findings suggest that delayed clonic convulsion in red seabreams is associated with the rapid decrease in spinal cord NE levels, which triggered the rebound motor neuron hyperactivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: spinal reflex; clonic convulsion; red seabream; norepinephrine spinal reflex; clonic convulsion; red seabream; norepinephrine
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, C.-L.; Kominami, Y.; Ushio, H. Mechanism of Delayed Convulsion in Fish: The Actions of Norepinephrine in Spinal Cord. Fishes 2021, 6, 12. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6020012

AMA Style

Lee C-L, Kominami Y, Ushio H. Mechanism of Delayed Convulsion in Fish: The Actions of Norepinephrine in Spinal Cord. Fishes. 2021; 6(2):12. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6020012

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lee, Cheng-Linn, Yuri Kominami, and Hideki Ushio. 2021. "Mechanism of Delayed Convulsion in Fish: The Actions of Norepinephrine in Spinal Cord" Fishes 6, no. 2: 12. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/fishes6020012

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop