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Neuroglia—An Open Access Journal: Editor-in-Chief Biography
Review

Hypothesis: Neuroglia Activation Due to Increased Peripheral and CNS Proinflammatory Cytokines/Chemokines with Neuroinflammation May Result in Long COVID

1
Departments of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology Diabetes and Metabolism, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
2
Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Center, School of Medicine, University of Missouri, One Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65211, USA
Academic Editor: James St John
Received: 30 July 2021 / Revised: 22 August 2021 / Accepted: 24 August 2021 / Published: 30 August 2021
The COVID-19 pandemic has paralleled the great Spanish flu pandemic of 1918–1919 in the United States. Previous historical accounts have strongly suggested a post-viral syndrome and, currently, a post-COVID-19 viral syndrome is unquestionable, which shares many of the characteristics of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome that is present globally. The original term for this post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) was termed long haulers by those who were affected with this syndrome and it is now termed long COVID (LC) or PASC. International researchers and clinicians are desperately trying to better understand the pathobiological mechanisms possibly involved in this syndrome. This review aims to summarize many of the cumulated findings associated with LC/PASC and provides supportive and representative illustrations and transmission electron micrographic remodeling changes within brain tissues associated with a stress type of injury as occurs in the classic db/db and novel BTBR ob/ob obesity and diabetes mellitus mice models. These models are utilized to merely provide a response to metabolic stress injury wound healing mechanisms that are also present in humans. This review posits that neuroglial activation and chronic neuroinflammation may be a common denominator for the development of the complex LC/PASC syndrome following acute COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2. View Full-Text
Keywords: astrocyte; BBB; BCSFB; brain endothelial cell; chemokines; COVID-19; cytokines; long COVID; neuroglia; PASC; ultrastructure astrocyte; BBB; BCSFB; brain endothelial cell; chemokines; COVID-19; cytokines; long COVID; neuroglia; PASC; ultrastructure
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hayden, M.R. Hypothesis: Neuroglia Activation Due to Increased Peripheral and CNS Proinflammatory Cytokines/Chemokines with Neuroinflammation May Result in Long COVID. Neuroglia 2021, 2, 7-35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010004

AMA Style

Hayden MR. Hypothesis: Neuroglia Activation Due to Increased Peripheral and CNS Proinflammatory Cytokines/Chemokines with Neuroinflammation May Result in Long COVID. Neuroglia. 2021; 2(1):7-35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hayden, Melvin R. 2021. "Hypothesis: Neuroglia Activation Due to Increased Peripheral and CNS Proinflammatory Cytokines/Chemokines with Neuroinflammation May Result in Long COVID" Neuroglia 2, no. 1: 7-35. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/neuroglia2010004

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