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Physics, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 30 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Rotational motion is ubiquitous in the Universe. In galaxies, stars, planet cores, and oceans, magnetic Coriolis forces act along with gravitational force and have a decisive influence on the movement of matter. The resulting systems of partial differential equations are essentially nonlinear and, in addition, turn out to be coupled. To obtain analytical solutions, various mathematical models are proposed, and the adequacy is verified by matching with the experiment. On the other hand, the rapid development of computation makes it possible to integrate complete systems of non-stationary hydrodynamic equations with good spatial resolution. However, numerical methods do not allow a qualitative assessment of the wave process. The review presents studies of the dynamics of ideal and viscous fluids with and without involving electromagnetic phenomena. View this paper
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12 pages, 305 KiB  
Article
Semi-Classical Electrodynamics and the Casimir Effect
by Mathias Boström, Ayda Gholamhosseinian, Subhojit Pal, Yang Li and Iver Brevik
Physics 2024, 6(1), 456-467; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010030 - 19 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 742
Abstract
From the late 1960s onwards, the groups of Barry Ninham and Adrian Parsegian, and their many collaborators, made a number of essential contributions to theory and experiment of intermolecular forces. In particular, they explored the semi-classical theory: Maxwell’s equations and Planck quantization of [...] Read more.
From the late 1960s onwards, the groups of Barry Ninham and Adrian Parsegian, and their many collaborators, made a number of essential contributions to theory and experiment of intermolecular forces. In particular, they explored the semi-classical theory: Maxwell’s equations and Planck quantization of light leads to Lifshitz and Casimir interactions. We discuss some selected thought-provoking results from Ninham and his group. Some of the results have been conceived as controversial but, we would say, never uninteresting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
30 pages, 701 KiB  
Review
Dynamics of Fluids in the Cavity of a Rotating Body: A Review of Analytical Solutions
by Anatoly A. Gurchenkov and Ivan A. Matveev
Physics 2024, 6(1), 426-455; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010029 - 19 Mar 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
Since the middle of the 20th century, an understanding of the diversity of the natural magnetohydrodynamic phenomena surrounding us has begun to emerge. Magnetohydrodynamic nature manifests itself in such seemingly heterogeneous processes as the flow of water in the world’s oceans, the movements [...] Read more.
Since the middle of the 20th century, an understanding of the diversity of the natural magnetohydrodynamic phenomena surrounding us has begun to emerge. Magnetohydrodynamic nature manifests itself in such seemingly heterogeneous processes as the flow of water in the world’s oceans, the movements of Earth’s liquid core, the dynamics of the solar magnetosphere and galactic electromagnetic fields. Their close relationship and multifaceted influence on human life are becoming more and more clearly revealed. The study of these phenomena requires the development of theory both fundamental and analytical, unifying a wide range of phenomena, and specialized areas that describe specific processes. The theory of translational fluid motion is well developed, but for most natural phenomena, this condition leads to a rather limited model. The fluid motion in the cavity of a rotating body such that the Coriolis forces are significant has been studied much less. A distinctive feature of the problems under consideration is their significant nonlinearity, (i.e., the absence of a linear approximation that allows one to obtain nontrivial useful results). From this point of view, the studies presented here were selected. This review presents studies on the movements of ideal and viscous fluids without taking into account electromagnetic phenomena (non-conducting, non-magnetic fluid) and while taking them into account (conducting fluid). Much attention is payed to the macroscopic movements of sea water (conducting liquid) located in Earth’s magnetic field, which spawns electric currents and, as a result, an induced magnetic field. Exploring the processes of generating magnetic fields in the moving turbulent flows of conducting fluid in the frame of dynamic systems with distributed parameters allows better understanding of the origin of cosmic magnetic fields (those of planets, stars, and galaxies). Various approaches are presented for rotational and librational movements. In particular, an analytical solution of three-dimensional unsteady magnetohydrodynamic equations for problems in a plane-parallel configuration is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Classical Physics)
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4 pages, 197 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Gorban et al. The Asymmetric Dynamical Casimir Effect. Physics 2023, 5, 398–422
by Matthew J. Gorban, William D. Julius, Patrick M. Brown, Jacob A. Matulevich and Gerald B. Cleaver
Physics 2024, 6(1), 422-425; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010028 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 357
Abstract
There was an error in the original paper [1], which occurred in the calculation of the DCE spectrum from the time-dependant perturbations on λ(t) [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
15 pages, 335 KiB  
Review
Axion Electrodynamics and the Casimir Effect
by Iver Brevik, Subhojit Pal, Yang Li, Ayda Gholamhosseinian and Mathias Boström
Physics 2024, 6(1), 407-421; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010027 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 741
Abstract
We present a concise review of selected parts of axion electrodynamics and their application to Casimir physics. We present the general formalism including the boundary conditions at a dielectric surface, derive the dispersion relation in the case where the axion parameter has a [...] Read more.
We present a concise review of selected parts of axion electrodynamics and their application to Casimir physics. We present the general formalism including the boundary conditions at a dielectric surface, derive the dispersion relation in the case where the axion parameter has a constant spatial derivative in the direction normal to the conducting plates, and calculate the Casimir energy for the simple case of scalar electrodynamics using dimensional regularization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
13 pages, 9089 KiB  
Article
Casimir Forces with Periodic Structures: Abrikosov Flux Lattices
by Shunashi Guadalupe Castillo-López, Raúl Esquivel-Sirvent, Giuseppe Pirruccio and Carlos Villarreal
Physics 2024, 6(1), 394-406; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010026 - 12 Mar 2024
Viewed by 598
Abstract
We investigate the influence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice on the Casimir force in a setup constituted by high-temperature superconductors subject to an external magnetic field. The Abrikosov lattice is a property of type II superconductors in which normal and superconducting carriers coexist [...] Read more.
We investigate the influence of the Abrikosov vortex lattice on the Casimir force in a setup constituted by high-temperature superconductors subject to an external magnetic field. The Abrikosov lattice is a property of type II superconductors in which normal and superconducting carriers coexist and the latter define a periodic pattern with square symmetry. We find that the optical properties determined by spatial redistribution of the superconducting order parameter induce Casimir forces with a periodic structure whose minimal strengths coincide with the vortex cores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
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18 pages, 287 KiB  
Article
Electric Octupole-Dependent Contributions to Optical Binding Energy
by A. Salam
Physics 2024, 6(1), 376-393; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010025 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Contributions to the radiation-induced dispersion energy shift between two interacting particles dependent on the electric octupole moment are calculated using a physical picture in which moments induced by applied fluctuating electromagnetic fields are coupled via retarded interaction tensors. The specific potentials evaluated include [...] Read more.
Contributions to the radiation-induced dispersion energy shift between two interacting particles dependent on the electric octupole moment are calculated using a physical picture in which moments induced by applied fluctuating electromagnetic fields are coupled via retarded interaction tensors. The specific potentials evaluated include those found between an electric dipole-polarisable molecule and either a mixed electric dipole–octupole- or purely octupole-polarisable molecule, and those between two mixed electric dipole–octupole-polarisable molecules. Interaction energies are obtained for molecular and pair orientationally averaged situations. Terms dependent on the octupole weight-1 moment may be viewed as higher-order corrections to the leading dipole–dipole interaction energy as also found in energy transfer and dispersion forces. A comprehensive polarisation analysis is carried out for linearly and circularly polarised laser light incident parallel and perpendicular to the inter-particle axis. Contributions to the optical binding energy arising when one of the pair is polar and characterised by either a permanent electric dipole or octupole moment are also evaluated. Neither of these energy shifts survive orientational averaging. Full article
8 pages, 1157 KiB  
Communication
Three-Dimension Calculation for the Scattering Problem for Non-Spherical Potential
by Pavel M. Krassovitskiy and Fedor M. Pen’kov
Physics 2024, 6(1), 368-375; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010024 - 6 Mar 2024
Viewed by 468
Abstract
The interaction of the 238U with a neutron is studied. Correct accounting for the non-spherical shape of the uranium nucleus is in focus. The optical potential is used as a model. It is shown that the spherically symmetric and non-spherical potentials give [...] Read more.
The interaction of the 238U with a neutron is studied. Correct accounting for the non-spherical shape of the uranium nucleus is in focus. The optical potential is used as a model. It is shown that the spherically symmetric and non-spherical potentials give different scattering patterns, in particular different resonance features of the cross-section. The possibility of using the method as an extension of the particle–rotor model of the nucleus is illustrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic Physics)
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12 pages, 1067 KiB  
Article
Scalar QED Model for Polarizable Particles in Thermal Equilibrium or in Hyperbolic Motion in Vacuum
by Kanu Sinha and Peter W. Milonni
Physics 2024, 6(1), 356-367; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010023 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 606
Abstract
We consider a scalar QED (quantum electrodynamics) model for the frictional force and the momentum fluctuations of a polarizable particle in thermal equilibrium with radiation or in hyperbolic motion in a vacuum. In the former case the loss of particle kinetic energy due [...] Read more.
We consider a scalar QED (quantum electrodynamics) model for the frictional force and the momentum fluctuations of a polarizable particle in thermal equilibrium with radiation or in hyperbolic motion in a vacuum. In the former case the loss of particle kinetic energy due to the frictional force is compensated by the increase in kinetic energy associated with the momentum diffusion, resulting in the Planck distribution when it is assumed that the average kinetic energy satisfies the equipartition theorem. For hyperbolic motion in vacuum the frictional force and the momentum diffusion are similarly consistent with an equilibrium with a Planckian distribution at the temperature T=a/2πkBc. The quantum fluctuations of the momentum imply that it is only the average acceleration a that is constant when the particle is subject to a constant applied force. Full article
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22 pages, 5203 KiB  
Article
Nanocomposite-Supported Polymeric Composites Prepared with Different Deposition Bases: Characterization and Application in X-ray Shielding
by Shaymaa Mohammed Fayyadh and Ali Ben Ahmed
Physics 2024, 6(1), 334-355; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010022 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 531
Abstract
This study deals with the preparation of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) via a coprecipitation method using several precipitation bases: binary precipitator (NH4OH), mono precipitator (NaOH), and weak precipitator (Ca(OH)2). The prepared magnetite NPs were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission [...] Read more.
This study deals with the preparation of magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) via a coprecipitation method using several precipitation bases: binary precipitator (NH4OH), mono precipitator (NaOH), and weak precipitator (Ca(OH)2). The prepared magnetite NPs were identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, surface area analysis, magnetic properties, Fourier-transformed infrared spectra (FT-IR), and ultra-violet UV–visible spectra. As a result, the phases of the produced magnetite NPs were unaffected by the use of various bases, but their crystallite sizes were affected. It was found that the binary base provided the smallest crystallite size, the mono base provided an average size, and the weak base provided the largest crystallite size. The UV–visible absorption spectroscopy investigation revealed that the absorption and the energy gap rose with a reduction in nanoparticle size. The prepared magnetite NPs were used to manufacture polymeric-based nanocomposites employed as protective shields from low-energy X-rays that are light in weight. These samples were identified using XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and FT-IR spectroscopy. The crystallite size was slightly larger than it was in the case of magnetite NPs. This is consistent with the results of AFM. The interference between the two phases was observed in the results of the FT-IR spectra. The effects of the size of the magnetite NPs on the attenuation tests, linear attenuation coefficient, mass attenuation coefficient, half-value layer, and mean free path were investigated. The results showed that the efficiency of using manufactured shields increases with the decrease in the NPs size of the magnetite used as a reinforcement phase for a range of low operating voltages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Physics)
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17 pages, 3530 KiB  
Article
Large Angular Momentum States in a Graphene Film
by Pietro Paolo Corso, Dario Cricchio and Emilio Fiordilino
Physics 2024, 6(1), 317-333; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010021 - 1 Mar 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
At energy lower than 2 eV, the dispersion law of the electrons in a graphene sheet presents a linear dependence of the energy on the kinetic momentum, which is typical of photons and permits the description of the electrons as massless particles by [...] Read more.
At energy lower than 2 eV, the dispersion law of the electrons in a graphene sheet presents a linear dependence of the energy on the kinetic momentum, which is typical of photons and permits the description of the electrons as massless particles by means of the Dirac equation and the study of massless particles acted upon by forces. We analytically solve the Dirac equation of an electron in a graphene disk with radius of 10,000 atomic units pierced by a magnetic field and find the eigenenergies and eigenstates of the particles for spin up and down. The magnetic field ranges within three orders of magnitude and is found to confine the electron in the disk. States with a relatively large total angular momentum exist and can be considered in a vorticose condition; these states are seen to peak at different distances from the disk centre and can be used to store few bit of information. Full article
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27 pages, 720 KiB  
Review
Casimir Physics beyond the Proximity Force Approximation: The Derivative Expansion
by César D. Fosco, Fernando C. Lombardo and Francisco D. Mazzitelli
Physics 2024, 6(1), 290-316; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010020 - 27 Feb 2024
Viewed by 872
Abstract
We review the derivative expansion (DE) method in Casimir physics, an approach which extends the proximity force approximation (PFA). After introducing and motivating the DE in contexts other than the Casimir effect, we present different examples which correspond to that realm. We focus [...] Read more.
We review the derivative expansion (DE) method in Casimir physics, an approach which extends the proximity force approximation (PFA). After introducing and motivating the DE in contexts other than the Casimir effect, we present different examples which correspond to that realm. We focus on different particular geometries, boundary conditions, types of fields, and quantum and thermal fluctuations. Besides providing various examples where the method can be applied, we discuss a concrete example for which the DE cannot be applied; namely, the case of perfect Neumann conditions in 2+1 dimensions. By the same example, we show how a more realistic type of boundary condition circumvents the problem. We also comment on the application of the DE to the Casimir–Polder interaction which provides a broader perspective on particle–surface interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
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26 pages, 1906 KiB  
Article
Emergent Flow Signal and the Colour String Fusion
by Daria Prokhorova and Evgeny Andronov
Physics 2024, 6(1), 264-289; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010019 - 20 Feb 2024
Viewed by 488
Abstract
In this study, we develop the colour string model of particle production, based on the multi-pomeron exchange scenario, to address the controversial origin of the flow signal measured in proton–proton inelastic interactions. Our approach takes into account the string–string interactions but does not [...] Read more.
In this study, we develop the colour string model of particle production, based on the multi-pomeron exchange scenario, to address the controversial origin of the flow signal measured in proton–proton inelastic interactions. Our approach takes into account the string–string interactions but does not include a hydrodynamic phase. We consider a comprehensive three-dimensional dynamics of strings that leads to the formation of strongly heterogeneous string density in an event. The latter serves as a source of particle creation. The string fusion mechanism, which is a major feature of the model, modifies the particle production and creates azimuthal anisotropy. Model parameters are fixed by comparing the model distributions with the ATLAS experiment proton–proton data at the centre-of-mass energy s=13 TeV. The results obtained for the two-particle angular correlation function, C(Δη,Δϕ), with Δη and Δϕ differences in, respectively, pseudorapidities and azimuthal angles between two particles, reveal the resonance contributions and the near-side ridge. Model calculations of the two-particle cumulants, c2{2}, and second order flow harmonic, v2{2}, also performed using the two-subevent method, are in qualitative agreement with the data. The observed absence of the away-side ridge in the model results is interpreted as an imperfection in the definition of the time for the transverse evolution of the string system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jean Cleymans: A Life for Physics)
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13 pages, 375 KiB  
Article
Alternative Origin of Galactic Positrons Generated by Ultraperipheral Collisions of Cosmic Rays
by Dmitry Chernyshov, Vladimir Dogiel and Igor Dremin
Physics 2024, 6(1), 251-263; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010018 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 505
Abstract
We suggest a new alternative model of positron origin in the Galaxy. It is shown in our model that interactions of the electromagnetic fields of colliding ions (ultraperipheral ion collisions) can contribute to the total production of Galactic positrons. The corresponding cross-section is [...] Read more.
We suggest a new alternative model of positron origin in the Galaxy. It is shown in our model that interactions of the electromagnetic fields of colliding ions (ultraperipheral ion collisions) can contribute to the total production of Galactic positrons. The corresponding cross-section is estimated by using the Born approximation and the equivalent photon method. This process of ion collisions dominates in the range of subrelativistic energies and produces positrons with energies of several MeV. Despite its low efficiency, as it requires more than 0.1 erg to produce a single positron, this process may be an effective source of positrons in the Galactic medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section High Energy Physics)
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14 pages, 360 KiB  
Article
Mass and Magnetic Moment of the Electron and the Stability of QED—A Critical Review
by Michael Bordag and Irina G. Pirozhenko
Physics 2024, 6(1), 237-250; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010017 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 520
Abstract
The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, first calculated by Schwinger, lowers the ground state energy of the electron in a weak magnetic field. It is a function of the field and changes signs for large fields, ensuring the stability of the ground [...] Read more.
The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, first calculated by Schwinger, lowers the ground state energy of the electron in a weak magnetic field. It is a function of the field and changes signs for large fields, ensuring the stability of the ground state. This has been shown in the past 50 years in numerous papers. The corresponding corrections to the mass of the electron have also been investigated in strong fields using semiclassical methods. We critically review these developments and point out that the calculation for low-lying excited states raises questions. Also, we calculate the contribution from the tadpole diagram, the relevance of which was observed only quite recently. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
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21 pages, 4674 KiB  
Article
From Sub-Solar to Super-Solar Chemical Abundances along the Quasar Main Sequence
by Paola Marziani, Alberto Floris, Alice Deconto-Machado, Swayamtrupta Panda, Marzena Sniegowska, Karla Garnica, Deborah Dultzin, Mauro D’Onofrio, Ascensión Del Olmo, Edi Bon and Nataša Bon
Physics 2024, 6(1), 216-236; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010016 - 17 Feb 2024
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
The 4D (four-dimensional) eigenvector 1 (E1) sequence has proven to be a highly effective tool for organizing observational and physical properties of type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this paper, we present multiple measurements of metallicity for the broad line region gas, from [...] Read more.
The 4D (four-dimensional) eigenvector 1 (E1) sequence has proven to be a highly effective tool for organizing observational and physical properties of type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In this paper, we present multiple measurements of metallicity for the broad line region gas, from new and previously-published data. We demonstrate a consistent trend along the optical plane of the E1 (also known as the quasar main sequence), defined by the line width of Balmer hydrogen Hβ profile and by a parameter measuring the prominence of singly-ionized iron emission. The trend involves an increase from sub-solar metallicity in correspondence with extreme Population B (weak Feii emission, large Hβ FWHM (full width at half maximum)) to metallicity several tens the solar value in correspondence with extreme Population A (strongest Feii optical emission, narrower Hβ profiles). The data establish the metallicity as a correlate of the 4DE1/main sequence. If the considerably high metallicity (Z10Z, solar metallicity) gas is expelled from the sphere of influence of the central black hole, as indicated by the widespread evidence of nuclear outflows and disk wind in the case of sources radiating at a high Eddington ratio, then it is possible that the outflows from quasars played a role in chemically enriching the host galaxy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Line Shapes in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasma 2023)
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10 pages, 305 KiB  
Communication
Towards Precision Muonic X-ray Measurements of Charge Radii of Light Nuclei
by Ben Ohayon, Andreas Abeln, Silvia Bara, Thomas Elias Cocolios, Ofir Eizenberg, Andreas Fleischmann, Loredana Gastaldo, César Godinho, Michael Heines, Daniel Hengstler, Guillaume Hupin, Paul Indelicato, Klaus Kirch, Andreas Knecht, Daniel Kreuzberger, Jorge Machado, Petr Navratil, Nancy Paul, Randolf Pohl, Daniel Unger, Stergiani Marina Vogiatzi, Katharina von Schoeler and Frederik Wautersadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Physics 2024, 6(1), 206-215; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010015 - 17 Feb 2024
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 777
Abstract
We, the QUARTET Collaboration, propose an experiment to measure the nuclear charge radii of light elements with up to 20 times higher accuracy. These are essential both for understanding nuclear physics at low energies, and for experimental and theoretical applications in simple atomic [...] Read more.
We, the QUARTET Collaboration, propose an experiment to measure the nuclear charge radii of light elements with up to 20 times higher accuracy. These are essential both for understanding nuclear physics at low energies, and for experimental and theoretical applications in simple atomic systems. Such comparisons advance the understanding of bound-state quantum electrodynamics and are useful for searching for new physics beyond the Standard Model. The energy levels of muonic atoms are highly susceptible to nuclear structure, especially to the mean square charge radius. The radii of the lightest nuclei (with the atomic number, Z=1,2) have been determined with high accuracy using laser spectroscopy in muonic atoms, while those of medium mass and above were determined using X-ray spectroscopy with semiconductor detectors. In this communication, we present a new experiment, aiming to obtain precision measurements of the radii of light nuclei 3Z10 using single-photon energy measurements with cryogenic microcalorimeters; a quantum-sensing technology capable of high efficiency with outstanding resolution for low-energy X-rays. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Physics and Fundamental Physical Constants (FFK 2023))
12 pages, 992 KiB  
Article
Surface Scattering Expansion of the Casimir–Polder Interaction for Magneto-Dielectric Bodies: Convergence Properties for Insulators, Conductors, and Semiconductors
by Giuseppe Bimonte and Thorsten Emig
Physics 2024, 6(1), 194-205; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010014 - 9 Feb 2024
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Fluctuation-induced forces are a hallmark of the interplay between fluctuations and geometry. We recently proved the existence of a multi-parametric family of exact representations of Casimir and Casimir–Polder interactions between bodies of arbitrary shape and material composition, admitting a multiple scattering expansion (MSE) [...] Read more.
Fluctuation-induced forces are a hallmark of the interplay between fluctuations and geometry. We recently proved the existence of a multi-parametric family of exact representations of Casimir and Casimir–Polder interactions between bodies of arbitrary shape and material composition, admitting a multiple scattering expansion (MSE) as a sequence of inter-body and intra-body multiple wave scatterings. The approach requires no knowledge of the scattering amplitude (T-matrix) of the bodies. In this paper, we investigate the convergence properties of the MSE for the Casimir–Polder interaction of a polarizable particle with a macroscopic body. We consider representative materials from different classes, such as insulators, conductors, and semiconductors. Using a sphere and a cylinder as benchmarks, we demonstrate that the MSE can be used to efficiently and accurately compute the Casimir–Polder interaction for bodies with smooth surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
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17 pages, 4481 KiB  
Article
Joint Analysis of the Iron Emission in the Optical and Near-Infrared Spectrum of I Zw 1
by Denimara Dias dos Santos, Swayamtrupta Panda, Alberto Rodríguez-Ardila and Murilo Marinello
Physics 2024, 6(1), 177-193; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010013 - 5 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 549
Abstract
Constraining the physical conditions of the ionized media in the vicinity of an active supermassive black hole (SMBH) is crucial to understanding how these complex systems operate. Metal emission lines such as iron (Fe) are useful probes to trace the gaseous media’s abundance, [...] Read more.
Constraining the physical conditions of the ionized media in the vicinity of an active supermassive black hole (SMBH) is crucial to understanding how these complex systems operate. Metal emission lines such as iron (Fe) are useful probes to trace the gaseous media’s abundance, activity, and evolution in these accreting systems. Among these, the Feii emission has been the focus of many prior studies to investigate the energetics, kinematics, and composition of the broad-emission line region (BELR) from where these emission lines are produced. In this paper, we present the first simultaneous Feii modeling in the optical and near-infrared (NIR) regions. We use cloudy photoionization code to simulate both spectral regions in the wavelength interval 4000–12,000 Å. We compare our model predictions with the observed line flux ratios for I Zw (Zwicky) 1—a prototypical strong Feii-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This allows setting constraints on the BLR cloud density and metal content that is optimal for the production of the Feii emission, which can be extended to I Zw 1-like sources by examining a broad parameter space. We demonstrate the salient and distinct features of the Feii pseudo-continuum in the optical and NIR, giving special attention to the effect of micro-turbulence on the intensity of the Feii emission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Line Shapes in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasma 2023)
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13 pages, 2719 KiB  
Article
Improved Modeling of Temperature Evolution during Lung Cancer Tumor Thermal Ablation
by Marwa Selmi
Physics 2024, 6(1), 164-176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010012 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 922
Abstract
Microwave ablation (MWA) represents one of the most powerful tools in cancer treatment. This therapeutic modality process is governed by the temperature and absorbed dose of radiation of the cell tissue. This study was performed to control the temperature effect using simulation during [...] Read more.
Microwave ablation (MWA) represents one of the most powerful tools in cancer treatment. This therapeutic modality process is governed by the temperature and absorbed dose of radiation of the cell tissue. This study was performed to control the temperature effect using simulation during the MWA thermal damage of lung tumor. For this reason, a two-dimensional (2D) computational modeling generated for adaptive lung tissue was designed and analyzed using the finite element method (FEM). Different approaches, such as first-order Arrhenius rate equations, Maxwell equations, and the bioheat equation, have been used to simulate necrosis in cells. To control the heat, a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller was used to moderate the input microwave power source and to maintain the temperature of the target tip at a lower level of the initial temperature data. Furthermore, full cancer tissue necrosis was also evaluated by processing time and thermal damage fraction. The obtained data proved that the target tip temperature was affected by the temperature distribution and specific absorption rate (SAR). However, a specific treatment period of tumor ablation is required to control and decrease the damage of surrounding healthy tissue to ensure a safe operation without any risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Physics)
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16 pages, 509 KiB  
Article
The Normal Casimir Force for Lateral Moving Planes with Isotropic Conductivities
by Nail Khusnutdinov and Natalia Emelianova
Physics 2024, 6(1), 148-163; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010011 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 651
Abstract
We consider the two planes at zero temperature with isotropic conductivity that are in relative lateral motion with velocity v and interplane distance a. Two models of conductivity are taken into account—the constant and frequency-dependent Drude models. The normal (perpendicular to planes) [...] Read more.
We consider the two planes at zero temperature with isotropic conductivity that are in relative lateral motion with velocity v and interplane distance a. Two models of conductivity are taken into account—the constant and frequency-dependent Drude models. The normal (perpendicular to planes) Casimir force is analyzed in detail for two systems—(i) two planes with identical conductivity and (ii) one plane that is a perfect metal. The velocity correction to the Casimir energy, ΔvEv2, for small enough velocities is used for all considered cases. In the case of constant conductivity, η, the energy correction is ΔvEη/a3v/η2 for vη1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
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10 pages, 449 KiB  
Article
Social Depolarization: Blume–Capel Model
by Miron Kaufman, Sanda Kaufman and Hung T. Diep
Physics 2024, 6(1), 138-147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010010 - 22 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
This study belongs to an emerging area of research seeking ways to depolarize societies in the short run (around events such as elections) as well as in a sustainable fashion. We approach the depolarization process with a model of three homophilic groups (US [...] Read more.
This study belongs to an emerging area of research seeking ways to depolarize societies in the short run (around events such as elections) as well as in a sustainable fashion. We approach the depolarization process with a model of three homophilic groups (US Democrats, Republicans, and Independents interacting in the context of upcoming federal elections). We expand a previous polarization model, which assumed that each individual interacts with all other individuals in its group with mean-field interactions. We add a depolarization field, which is analogous to the Blume–Capel model’s crystal field. There are currently numerous depolarization efforts around the world, some of which act in ways similar to this depolarization field. We find that for low values of the depolarization field, the system continues to be polarized. When the depolarization field is increased, the polarization decreases. Full article
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15 pages, 679 KiB  
Article
Phase Transition in Ant Colony Optimization
by Shintaro Mori, Shogo Nakamura, Kazuaki Nakayama and Masato Hisakado
Physics 2024, 6(1), 123-137; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010009 - 18 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 591
Abstract
Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of ants. We investigate a simplified computational model of ACO, wherein ants sequentially engage in binary decision-making tasks, leaving pheromone trails contingent upon their choices. The quantity of pheromone [...] Read more.
Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a stochastic optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging behavior of ants. We investigate a simplified computational model of ACO, wherein ants sequentially engage in binary decision-making tasks, leaving pheromone trails contingent upon their choices. The quantity of pheromone left is the number of correct answers. We scrutinize the impact of a salient parameter in the ACO algorithm, specifically, the exponent α, which governs the pheromone levels in the stochastic choice function. In the absence of pheromone evaporation, the system is accurately modeled as a multivariate nonlinear Pólya urn, undergoing phase transition as α varies. The probability of selecting the correct answer for each question asymptotically approaches the stable fixed point of the nonlinear Pólya urn. The system exhibits dual stable fixed points for ααc and a singular stable fixed point for α<αc where αc is the critical value. When pheromone evaporates over a time scale τ, the phase transition does not occur and leads to a bimodal stationary distribution of probabilities for ααc and a monomodal distribution for α<αc. Full article
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15 pages, 5189 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Laser-Induced Cavity and Plasma Formation in Water Using Double-Pulse LIBS
by Michelle Siemens, Benjamin Emde, Marion Henkel, Ralf Methling, Steffen Franke, Diego Gonzalez and Jörg Hermsdorf
Physics 2024, 6(1), 108-122; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010008 - 12 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 778
Abstract
This paper deals with double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) underwater, which is a promising analytical method for elemental analysis in the deep sea up to a water depth of 6000 m. A double-pulse laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm is used, which [...] Read more.
This paper deals with double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) underwater, which is a promising analytical method for elemental analysis in the deep sea up to a water depth of 6000 m. A double-pulse laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm is used, which provides a pulse energy of up to 266 mJ for each laser pulse (in single pulse mode), a pulse width of 5–7 ns and a pulse delay in the range of 0.5 to 20 µs. In the double-pulse LIBS method, the first laser pulse creates a cavity on the material surface, and then the second laser pulse forms the plasma in this cavity. It is expected that the plasma is affected by the cavity’s size and lifetime. For this reason, the influence of focus position, pulse energy and pulse delay on the cavity and plasma formation at shallow water depth has been investigated. Full article
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14 pages, 296 KiB  
Article
Zero-Point Energy Density at the Origin of the Vacuum Permittivity and Photon Propagation Time Fluctuation
by Christophe Hugon and Vladimir Kulikovskiy
Physics 2024, 6(1), 94-107; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010007 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1795
Abstract
We give a vacuum description with zero-point density for virtual fluctuations. One of the goals is to explain the origin of the vacuum permittivity and permeability and to calculate their values. In particular, we improve on existing calculations by avoiding assumptions on the [...] Read more.
We give a vacuum description with zero-point density for virtual fluctuations. One of the goals is to explain the origin of the vacuum permittivity and permeability and to calculate their values. In particular, we improve on existing calculations by avoiding assumptions on the volume occupied by virtual fluctuations. We propose testing of the models that assume a finite lifetime of virtual fluctuation. If during its propagation, the photon is stochastically trapped and released by virtual pairs, the propagation velocity may fluctuate. The propagation time fluctuation is estimated for several existing models. The obtained values are measurable with available technologies involving ultra-short laser pulses, and some of the models are already in conflict with the existing astronomical observations. The phase velocity is not affected significantly, which is consistent with the interferometric measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vacuum Fluctuations)
19 pages, 4277 KiB  
Article
Generalized One-Dimensional Periodic Potential Wells Tending to the Dirac Delta Potential
by F. Mendoza-Villa, Juan A. Ramos-Guivar and R. M. Espinoza-Bernardo
Physics 2024, 6(1), 75-93; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010006 - 9 Jan 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 900
Abstract
The solution of a quantum periodic potential in solid state physics is relevant because one can understand how electrons behave in a corresponding crystal. In this paper, the analytical solution of the energy formulation for a one-dimensional periodic potential that meets certain boundary [...] Read more.
The solution of a quantum periodic potential in solid state physics is relevant because one can understand how electrons behave in a corresponding crystal. In this paper, the analytical solution of the energy formulation for a one-dimensional periodic potential that meets certain boundary conditions is developed in a didactic and detailed way. In turn, the group speed and effective mass are also calculated from the transcendental energy equation of a potential V=V(x). From this, a comparison is made with periodic potentials with known analytical solutions, such as the Dirac delta, as well as rectangular and triangular potentials. Finally, some limits are proposed in which these periodic potentials of the form V=V(x) approach the periodic Dirac delta potential of positive intensity. Therefore, the calculations described in this paper can be used as the basis for more-complex one-dimensional potentials and related simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Atomic Physics)
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15 pages, 595 KiB  
Article
Atoms Dressed by Virtual and Real Photons
by Maria Allegrini and Ennio Arimondo
Physics 2024, 6(1), 60-74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010005 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 842
Abstract
Specific properties of quantum field theory are described by considering the combination of the system under investigation and the cloud of virtual or real particles associated with the field. Such a structure is called a “dressed system”, in contrast with the bare one [...] Read more.
Specific properties of quantum field theory are described by considering the combination of the system under investigation and the cloud of virtual or real particles associated with the field. Such a structure is called a “dressed system”, in contrast with the bare one in the absence of the interaction with the field. The description of the properties of such clouds in various physical situations is, today, an active research area. Here, we present the main features associated with virtual and real dressings, focusing on photon dressing. In analogy to virtual photon clouds dressing electrons in vacuum, virtual phonon clouds appear in solid-state physics. The interaction between real photons and the schematized two-level structure of an atom paves the way to flexible quantum control. Here, a unifying Floquet engineering approach is applied to describe single- and multiple-dressed atom configurations. Connections with the past and present atomic physics experiments are presented. Full article
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14 pages, 1482 KiB  
Article
Do Successful Researchers Reach the Self-Organized Critical Point?
by Asim Ghosh and Bikas K. Chakrabarti
Physics 2024, 6(1), 46-59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010004 - 30 Dec 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 706
Abstract
The index of success of the researchers is now mostly measured using the Hirsch index (h). Our recent precise demonstration, that statistically hNcNp, where Np and Nc denote, respectively, the total number [...] Read more.
The index of success of the researchers is now mostly measured using the Hirsch index (h). Our recent precise demonstration, that statistically hNcNp, where Np and Nc denote, respectively, the total number of publications and total citations for the researcher, suggests that average number of citations per paper (Nc/Np), and hence h, are statistical numbers (Dunbar numbers) depending on the community or network to which the researcher belongs. We show here, extending our earlier observations, that the indications of success are not reflected by the total citations Nc, rather by the inequalities among citations from publications to publications. Specifically, we show that for highly successful authors, the yearly variations in the Gini index (g, giving the average inequality of citations for the publications) and the Kolkata index (k, giving the fraction of total citations received by the top (1k) fraction of publications; k=0.80 corresponds to Pareto’s 80/20 law) approach each other to g=k0.82, signaling a precursor for the arrival of (or departure from) the self-organized critical (SOC) state of his/her publication statistics. Analyzing the citation statistics (from Google Scholar) of thirty successful scientists throughout their recorded publication history, we find that the g and k for the highly successful among them (mostly Nobel laureates, highest rank Stanford cite-scorers, and a few others) reach and hover just above (and then) below that g=k0.82 mark, while for others they remain below that mark. We also find that all the lower (than the SOC mark 0.82) values of k and g fit a linear relationship, k=1/2+cg, with c=0.39, as suggested by an approximate Landau-type expansion of the Lorenz function, and this also indicates k=g0.82 for the (extrapolated) SOC precursor mark. Full article
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15 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
Long-Term Optical Monitoring of Broad-Line AGNs (LoTerm AGN): Case Study of NGC 3516
by Dragana Ilić, Luka Č. Popović, Alexander Burenkov, Elena Shablovinskaya, Eugene Malygin, Roman Uklein, Alexei V. Moiseev, Dmitry Oparin, Víctor M. Patiño Álvarez, Vahram Chavushyan, Paola Marziani, Mauro D’Onofrio, Alberto Floris, Andjelka B. Kovačević, Jovana Jovičić, Djordje Miković, Nemanja Rakić, Saša Simić, Sladjana Marčeta Mandić, Stefano Ciroi, Amelia Vietri, Luca Crepaldi and Ascensión del Olmoadd Show full author list remove Hide full author list
Physics 2024, 6(1), 31-45; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010003 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Properties of the broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are commonly used to estimate the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) that powers an AGN. However, the understanding of the physics behind the BLR remains incomplete. The AGNs exhibit [...] Read more.
Properties of the broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are commonly used to estimate the mass of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) that powers an AGN. However, the understanding of the physics behind the BLR remains incomplete. The AGNs exhibit strong optical variability, observed in the change of the profiles and fluxes of broad emission lines. Utilizing this variability provides an opportunity to constrain the physics of the BLR, and understand the interplay of the BLR with SMBH and surrounding regions. Here, we present the long-term monitoring campaign of a sample of the known broad-line AGNs (identified as LoTerm AGN). The aim of this study is to show the importance of sustained and dedicated campaigns that continually collect spectroscopic data of the known AGNs over extended timescales, providing unique insight into the origin and structure of the BLR. LoTerm AGN is a collaborative network of seven moderate-size telescopes equipped for spectroscopy. We focus on the recent spectral data of the known changing-look AGN, NGC 3516. Specifically, we examine the broad hydrogen Balmer Hα line observed in the period 2020–2023, demonstrating that this AGN remains active with the BLR signatures observed in the spectra. No significant change in the broad line profile of Hα line is observed during this recent period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spectral Line Shapes in Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasma 2023)
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18 pages, 3846 KiB  
Article
Casimir–Lifshitz Frictional Heating in a System of Parallel Metallic Plates
by George V. Dedkov
Physics 2024, 6(1), 13-30; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010002 - 27 Dec 2023
Viewed by 710
Abstract
The Casimir–Lifshitz force of friction between neutral bodies in relative motion, along with the drag effect, causes their heating. This paper considers this frictional heating in a system of two metal plates within the framework of fluctuation electromagnetic theory. Analytical expressions for the [...] Read more.
The Casimir–Lifshitz force of friction between neutral bodies in relative motion, along with the drag effect, causes their heating. This paper considers this frictional heating in a system of two metal plates within the framework of fluctuation electromagnetic theory. Analytical expressions for the friction force in the limiting cases of low (zero) temperature and low and high speeds, as well as general expressions describing the kinetics of heating, have been obtained. It is shown that the combination of low temperatures (T < 10 K) and velocities of 10–103 m/s provides the most favorable conditions when measuring the Casimir–Lifshitz friction force from heat measurements. In particular, the friction force of two coaxial disks of gold 10 cm in diameter and 500 nm in thickness, one of which rotates at a frequency of 10–103 rps (revolutions per second), can be measured using the heating effect of 1–2 K in less than 1 min. A possible experimental layout is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 75 Years of the Casimir Effect: Advances and Prospects)
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12 pages, 1280 KiB  
Article
A Thermodynamic Comparison of Nanotip and Nanoblade Geometries for Ultrafast Laser Field Emission via the Finite Element Method
by Joshua Mann and James Rosenzweig
Physics 2024, 6(1), 1-12; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/physics6010001 - 19 Dec 2023
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Strong laser field emission from metals is a growing area of study, owing to its applications in high-brightness cathodes and potentially as a high harmonic generation source. Nanopatterned plasmonic cathodes localize and enhance incident laser fields, reducing the spot size and increasing the [...] Read more.
Strong laser field emission from metals is a growing area of study, owing to its applications in high-brightness cathodes and potentially as a high harmonic generation source. Nanopatterned plasmonic cathodes localize and enhance incident laser fields, reducing the spot size and increasing the current density. Experiments have demonstrated that the nanoblade structure outperforms nanotips in the peak fields achieved before damage is inflicted. With more intense surface fields come brighter emissions, and thus investigating the thermomechanical properties of these structures is crucial in their characterization. We study, using the finite element method, the electron and lattice temperatures for varying geometries, as well as the opening angles, peak surface fields, and apex radii of curvature. While we underestimate the energy deposited into the lattice here, a comparison of the geometries is still helpful for understanding why one structure performs better than the other. We find that the opening angle—not the structure dimensionality—is what primarily determines the thermal performance of these structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Physics)
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