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Oceans, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2021) – 3 articles

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Article
Larval Fish Community in the Northwestern Iberian Upwelling System during the Summer Period
Oceans 2021, 2(4), 700-722; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2040040 - 15 Oct 2021
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Abstract
The Galician shelf (northwestern Iberian Peninsula) is a highly dynamic area with an important multi-species fisheries industry that exploits resources from several habitats, characterized by being not only highly diverse, rich, and productive but also seasonally and interannually variable. Early life stages of [...] Read more.
The Galician shelf (northwestern Iberian Peninsula) is a highly dynamic area with an important multi-species fisheries industry that exploits resources from several habitats, characterized by being not only highly diverse, rich, and productive but also seasonally and interannually variable. Early life stages of different species are distributed throughout the year, with fluctuating abundances and community composition. Likewise, the influence of environmental factors and processes on larval production and survival remains unknown. Sampling was carried out in July 2012, and all the larvae obtained were identified to establish the specific composition of the community in a summer upwelling scenario. The results show no zonation in the species distribution, a consequence of the mixing effects of the upwelling and eddies, with high diversity but low abundance, which render in a slight predominance of a few species. Due to the dependence of planktonic populations on upwelling events, which was not highly pronounced in 2012, we cannot conclude that this was a typical conformation of the Galician summer larval fish community, but it is a first approach to comprehend the community composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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Article
Simulated Changes in Tropical Cyclone Size, Accumulated Cyclone Energy and Power Dissipation Index in a Warmer Climate
Oceans 2021, 2(4), 688-699; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2040039 - 11 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Detection, attribution and projection of changes in tropical cyclone intensity statistics are made difficult from the potentially decreasing overall storm frequency combined with increases in the peak winds of the most intense storms as the climate warms. Multi-decadal simulations of stabilized climate scenarios [...] Read more.
Detection, attribution and projection of changes in tropical cyclone intensity statistics are made difficult from the potentially decreasing overall storm frequency combined with increases in the peak winds of the most intense storms as the climate warms. Multi-decadal simulations of stabilized climate scenarios from a high-resolution tropical cyclone permitting atmospheric general circulation model are used to examine simulated global changes from warmer temperatures, if any, in estimates of tropical cyclone size, accumulated cyclonic energy and power dissipation index. Changes in these metrics are found to be complicated functions of storm categorization and global averages of them are unlikely to easily reveal the impact of climate change on future tropical cyclone intensity statistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tropical Cyclone Future Projections)
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Article
Do Sand Smelt (Atherina presbyter Cuvier, 1829) Larvae Discriminate among Conspecifics Using Different Sensory Cues?
Oceans 2021, 2(4), 675-687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/oceans2040038 - 28 Sep 2021
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Abstract
The ability of shoaling fish to recognise and differentiate between potential groupmates may affect their fitness and survival. Fish are capable of social recognition and multiple sensory cues mediate the recognition mechanisms. This has been comprehensively studied for juvenile and adult freshwater species. [...] Read more.
The ability of shoaling fish to recognise and differentiate between potential groupmates may affect their fitness and survival. Fish are capable of social recognition and multiple sensory cues mediate the recognition mechanisms. This has been comprehensively studied for juvenile and adult freshwater species. However, the recognition ability and mechanisms intervening during the larval phase of marine species are yet poorly understood. Fish larvae are capable of discriminating conspecifics from heterospecifics based on chemical and/or visual cues, but whether this recognition occurs at finer scales, such as discerning among conspecifics of different reefs, is yet understudied. Here, we tested the hypothesis that larvae of a marine fish species, the sand smelt (Atherina presbyter Cuvier, 1829), are able to recognise and associate with conspecifics of their natal reef versus conspecifics of a non-natal reef based on three sensory modalities—chemical, visual, and chemical and visual simultaneously. Results do not support our hypothesis, but still provide evidence of group cohesion and indicate large differences in the relative importance of the different senses when associating with conspecifics, with visual cues playing a more important role than chemical cues alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Larval Biology and Ecology)
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