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Volume 2, March

Appl. Nano, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December 2020) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The use of nanoparticles in surface-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI MS) has a long story. Those are mostly used as local heaters, while we are investigating the additional ion release from the NP surface and following formation of charged adducts between small molecular analytes and metal atoms. Here, we demonstrated that the Ag nanoparticle size affects the ion formation rates; moreover, at certain conditions, the quantity of analyte (in our case, riboflavin molecule) and silver atom adducts can be enhanced, thus making it possible to use such adducts for detection. We showed that small Ag NPs work as local heaters, not releasing material under laser irradiation, while for larger NPs, the material release significantly impacts the ion types formed in the desorbed plume. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
Spontaneous Formation of [email protected] [email protected] Nanoparticles by Gas Phase Synthesis
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 87-101; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010007 - 01 Dec 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
This work presents the gas phase synthesis of CoCr nanoparticles using a magnetron-based gas aggregation source. The effect of the particle size and Co/Cr ratio on the properties of the nanoparticles is investigated. In particular, we report the synthesis of nanoparticles from two [...] Read more.
This work presents the gas phase synthesis of CoCr nanoparticles using a magnetron-based gas aggregation source. The effect of the particle size and Co/Cr ratio on the properties of the nanoparticles is investigated. In particular, we report the synthesis of nanoparticles from two alloy targets, Co90Cr10 and Co80Cr20. In the first case, we observe a size threshold for the spontaneous formation of a segregated [email protected] structure, related to the surface to volume ratio. When this ratio is above one, a shell cannot be properly formed, whereas when this ratio decreases below unity the proportion of Cr atoms is high enough to allow the formation of a shell. In the latter case, the segregation of the Cr atoms towards the surface gives rise to the formation of a shell surrounding the Co core. When the proportion of Cr is increased in the target (Co80Cr20), a thicker shell is spontaneously formed for a similar nanoparticle size. The magnetic response was evaluated, and the influence of the structure and composition of the nanoparticles is discussed. An enhancement of the global magnetic anisotropy caused by exchange bias and dipolar interactions, which enables the thermal stability of the studied small particles up to relatively large temperatures, is reported. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation of Advanced Nanomaterials by Gas-Phase Aggregation)
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Open AccessReview
Nanoparticles Synthesised in the Gas-Phase and Their Applications in Sensors: A Review
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 70-86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010006 - 03 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 643
Abstract
This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in the use of gas-phase synthesized nanoparticles in the field of sensing technology. Since there are numerous and diverse reviews that already cover the subject extensively, this review focuses predominantly but not [...] Read more.
This article aims to provide a comprehensive review of recent advances in the use of gas-phase synthesized nanoparticles in the field of sensing technology. Since there are numerous and diverse reviews that already cover the subject extensively, this review focuses predominantly but not exclusively on gas-phase synthesized metallic nanoparticles and their most prominent sensing-applications. After a brief overview on the main uses of nanoparticles in science and technology, as well as a description of the dominant fabrication methods, the review discusses their incorporation in strain-sensing, chemical sensing and bio-sensing as well as a few other sensing-applications. The review highlights the inherent advantages of nanoparticles, as well as how they combine with flexible gas-phase synthesis processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation of Advanced Nanomaterials by Gas-Phase Aggregation)
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Open AccessArticle
Fabrication of High-Aspect-Ratio Cylindrical Micro-Structures Based on Electroactive Ionogel/Gold Nanocomposite
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 59-69; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010005 - 26 Oct 2020
Viewed by 565
Abstract
We present a fabrication process to realize 3D high-aspect-ratio cylindrical micro-structures of soft ionogel/gold nanocomposites by combining replica molding and Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD). Cylinders’ metallic masters (0.5 mm in diameter) are used to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds, where the ionogel is [...] Read more.
We present a fabrication process to realize 3D high-aspect-ratio cylindrical micro-structures of soft ionogel/gold nanocomposites by combining replica molding and Supersonic Cluster Beam Deposition (SCBD). Cylinders’ metallic masters (0.5 mm in diameter) are used to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds, where the ionogel is casted and UV cured. The replicated ionogel cylinders (aspect ratio > 20) are subsequently metallized through SCBD to integrate nanostructured gold electrodes (150 nm thick) into the polymer. Nanocomposite thin films are characterized in terms of electrochemical properties, exhibiting large double layer capacitance (24 μF/cm2) and suitable ionic conductivity (0.05 mS/cm) for charge transport across the network. Preliminary actuation tests show that the nanocomposite is able to respond to low intensity electric fields (applied voltage from 2.5 V to 5 V), with potential applications for the development of artificial smart micro-structures with motility behavior inspired by that of natural ciliate systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation of Advanced Nanomaterials by Gas-Phase Aggregation)
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Open AccessReview
Gas-Phase Synthesis of Functional Nanomaterials
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 25-58; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010004 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) of different types, especially those of metals and metal oxides, are widely used in research and industry for a variety of applications utilising their unique physical and chemical properties. In this article, the focus is put on the fabrication of nanomaterials [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) of different types, especially those of metals and metal oxides, are widely used in research and industry for a variety of applications utilising their unique physical and chemical properties. In this article, the focus is put on the fabrication of nanomaterials by means of gas-phase aggregation, also known as the cluster beam technique. A short overview of the history of cluster sources development emphasising the main milestones is presented followed by the description of different regimes of cluster-surface interaction, namely, soft-landing, pinning, sputtering and implantation. The key phenomena and effects for every regime are discussed. The review is continued by the sections describing applications of nanomaterials produced by gas aggregation. These parts critically analyse the pros and cons of the cluster beam approach for catalysis, formation of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic NPs, applications in sensor and detection technologies as well as the synthesis of coatings and composite films containing NPs in research and industrial applications covering a number of different areas, such as electronics, tribology, biology and medicine. At the end, the current state of the knowledge on the synthesis of nanomaterials using gas aggregation is summarised and the strategies towards industrial applications are outlined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation of Advanced Nanomaterials by Gas-Phase Aggregation)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Bi1.5Y0.5O3 Active Layer on the Performance of Nanostructured La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 Cathode
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 14-24; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010003 - 01 Sep 2020
Viewed by 641
Abstract
The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cell cathodes can be improved by microstructural optimization and using active layers, such as doped bismuth oxides. In this work, Bi1.5Y0.5O3 (BYO) films are prepared by spray-pyrolysis deposition at reduced temperatures on [...] Read more.
The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cell cathodes can be improved by microstructural optimization and using active layers, such as doped bismuth oxides. In this work, Bi1.5Y0.5O3 (BYO) films are prepared by spray-pyrolysis deposition at reduced temperatures on a Zr0.84Y0.16O1.92 (YSZ) electrolyte. The influence of the BYO film on the performance of an La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 (LSM) cathode prepared by traditional screen-printing and spray-pyrolysis is investigated. A complete structural, morphological, and electrochemical characterization is carried out by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy. The incorporation of BYO films decreases the Area Specific Resistance (ASR) of screen-printed cathodes from 6.4 to 2.2 Ω cm2 at 650 °C. However, further improvements are observed for the nanostructured electrodes prepared by spray-pyrolysis with ASRs of 0.55 and 1.15 Ω cm2 at 650 °C for cathodes with and without an active layer, respectively. These results demonstrate that microstructural control using optimized fabrication methods is desirable to obtain high-efficiency electrodes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Solid Oxide Cell Applications)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Ag Nanoparticle Size on Ion Formation in Nanoparticle Assisted LDI MS
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 3-13; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010002 - 24 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 750
Abstract
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) were reported as an efficient matrix for detection of small molecules using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Their pronounced efficiency is mostly in desorption enhancement, while, in some cases, NPs can facilitate charge transfer to a molecule, which has been reported [...] Read more.
Metal nanoparticles (NPs) were reported as an efficient matrix for detection of small molecules using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Their pronounced efficiency is mostly in desorption enhancement, while, in some cases, NPs can facilitate charge transfer to a molecule, which has been reported for alkali metals and silver. In this work, we present the study of the influence of Ag NP size on the laser desorption/ionization mass spectra of a model analyte, the molecule of riboflavin. The NPs were produced by magnetron sputtering-based gas aggregation in a vacuum and mass-filtered before the deposition on substrates. It was found that the utilization of smaller Ag NPs (below 15 nm in diameter) considerably enhanced the molecule desorption. In contrast, the laser irradiation of the samples with larger NPs led to the increased ablation of silver, resulting in [analyte + Ag]+ adduct formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Formation of Advanced Nanomaterials by Gas-Phase Aggregation)
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Open AccessEditorial
Introducing Applied Nano: An Interdisciplinary Open Access Journal Showing How Nanoscience Can Offer Solutions to Different Problems and Needs
Appl. Nano 2020, 1(1), 1-2; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/applnano1010001 - 03 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
The first question that came to mind when I received the proposal to lead the Editorial Board of Applied Nano was: “Do we really need a new nano-journal [...] Full article
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