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Modelling, Volume 1, Issue 2 (December 2020) – 10 articles

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Open AccessArticle
Analytical Modeling of Residual Stress in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Considering Volume Conservation in Plastic Deformation
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 242-259; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020015 - 15 Dec 2020
Viewed by 414
Abstract
Residual stress (RS) is the most challenging problem in metal additive manufacturing (AM) since the build-up of high tensile RS may influence the fatigue life, corrosion resistance, crack initiation, and failure of the additively manufactured components. While tensile RS is inherent in all [...] Read more.
Residual stress (RS) is the most challenging problem in metal additive manufacturing (AM) since the build-up of high tensile RS may influence the fatigue life, corrosion resistance, crack initiation, and failure of the additively manufactured components. While tensile RS is inherent in all the AM processes, fast and accurate prediction of the stress state within the part is extremely valuable and results in optimization of the process parameters to achieve a desired RS and control of the build process. This paper proposes a physics-based analytical model to rapidly and accurately predict the RS within the additively manufactured part. In this model, a transient moving point heat source (HS) is utilized to determine the temperature field. Due to the high temperature gradient within the proximity of the melt pool area, the material experiences high thermal stress. Thermal stress is calculated by combining three sources of stresses known as stresses due to the body forces, normal tension, and hydrostatic stress in a homogeneous semi-infinite medium. The thermal stress determines the RS state within the part. Consequently, by taking the thermal stress history as an input, both the in-plane and out of plane RS distributions are found from the incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of the metal by considering volume conservation in plastic deformation in coupling with the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. In this modeling, material properties are temperature-sensitive since the steep temperature gradient varies the properties significantly. Moreover, the energy needed for the solid-state phase transition is reflected by modifying the specific heat employing the latent heat of fusion. Furthermore, the multi-layer and multi-scan aspects of metal AM are considered by including the temperature history from previous layers and scans. Results from the analytical RS model presented excellent agreement with XRD measurements employed to determine the RS in the Ti-6Al-4V specimens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Modelling in Engineering Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Modeling and Simulation of Head Trauma Utilizing White Matter Properties from Magnetic Resonance Elastography
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 225-241; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020014 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 387
Abstract
Tissues of the brain, especially white matter, are extremely heterogeneous—with constitutive responses varying spatially. In this paper, we implement a high-resolution Finite Element (FE) head model where heterogeneities of white matter structures are introduced through Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) experiments. Displacement of white [...] Read more.
Tissues of the brain, especially white matter, are extremely heterogeneous—with constitutive responses varying spatially. In this paper, we implement a high-resolution Finite Element (FE) head model where heterogeneities of white matter structures are introduced through Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) experiments. Displacement of white matter under shear wave excitation is captured and the material properties determined through an inversion algorithm are incorporated in the FE model via a two-term Ogden hyper-elastic material model. This approach is found to improve model predictions when compared to experimental results. In the first place, mechanical response in the cerebrum near stiff structures such as the corpus callosum and corona radiata are markedly different compared with a homogenized material model. Additionally, the heterogeneities introduce additional attenuation of the shear wave due to wave scattering within the cerebrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Modelling in Biology and Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Heterogeneous Compute Clusters and Massive Environmental Simulations Based on the EPIC Model
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 215-224; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020013 - 04 Dec 2020
Viewed by 417
Abstract
In recent years, the crop growth modeling community invested immense effort into high resolution global simulations estimating inter alia the impacts of projected climate change. The demand for computing resources in this context is high and expressed in processor core-years per one global [...] Read more.
In recent years, the crop growth modeling community invested immense effort into high resolution global simulations estimating inter alia the impacts of projected climate change. The demand for computing resources in this context is high and expressed in processor core-years per one global simulation, implying several crops, management systems, and a several decades time span for a single climatic scenario. The anticipated need to model a richer set of alternative management options and crop varieties would increase the processing capacity requirements even more, raising the looming issue of computational efficiency. While several publications report on the successful application of the original field-scale crop growth model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) for running on modern supercomputers, the related performance improvement issues and, especially, associated trade-offs have only received, so far, limited coverage. This paper provides a comprehensive view on the principles of the EPIC setup for parallel computations and, for the first time, on those specific to heterogeneous compute clusters that are comprised of desktop computers utilizing their idle time to carry out massive computations. The suggested modification of the core EPIC model allows for a dramatic performance increase (order of magnitude) on a compute cluster that is powered by the open-source high-throughput computing software framework HTCondor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Layer-Wise Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Piezoelectric Laminates
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 198-214; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020012 - 02 Dec 2020
Viewed by 420
Abstract
In this work, a novel high-order formulation for multilayered piezoelectric plates based on the combination of variable-order interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods and general layer-wise plate theories is presented, implemented and tested. The key feature of the formulation is the possibility to tune [...] Read more.
In this work, a novel high-order formulation for multilayered piezoelectric plates based on the combination of variable-order interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin methods and general layer-wise plate theories is presented, implemented and tested. The key feature of the formulation is the possibility to tune the order of the basis functions in both the in-plane approximation and the through-the-thickness expansion of the primary variables, namely displacements and electric potential. The results obtained from the application to the considered test cases show accuracy and robustness, thus confirming the developed technique as a supplementary computational tool for the analysis and design of smart laminated devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation of Oil Well Drilling System Using Distributed–Lumped Modelling Technique
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 175-197; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020011 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 419
Abstract
The strengths and torque of well-boiling hydrocarbons are of utmost significance. Boiling a well is one of the most critical steps in the discovery and production of oil and gas. The well’s boiling process is expensive because the drilling depth can be as [...] Read more.
The strengths and torque of well-boiling hydrocarbons are of utmost significance. Boiling a well is one of the most critical steps in the discovery and production of oil and gas. The well’s boiling process is expensive because the drilling depth can be as much as 7000 meters. Any delay (breakdown time) in boiling costs a lot of money for hydrocarbon firms. Various boiler parameters are continuously tracked and regulated to avoid drilling delays. This paper focuses on the vibrations occurring at the bottom hole assembly (BHA) stick-slip. Two modelling methods, the lumped parameter model and the combination of the distributed–lumped (D–L) parameter model, were used and compared to the actual measurement performance. The D–L model was found to be more precise, particularly for long strings. Using the simulations, the most comprehensive modelling methodology is introduced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Stochastic Earthmoving Fleet Arrangement Optimization Considering Project Duration and Cost
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 156-174; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020010 - 07 Nov 2020
Viewed by 636
Abstract
Earthmoving is one of the main processes involved in heavy construction and mining projects. It requires a significant share of the project budget and can dictate its overall success. Earthmoving related activities have a stochastic nature that affects the project cost and duration. [...] Read more.
Earthmoving is one of the main processes involved in heavy construction and mining projects. It requires a significant share of the project budget and can dictate its overall success. Earthmoving related activities have a stochastic nature that affects the project cost and duration. In common practice, the equipment required for a project is selected using average operating cycles, neglecting the stochastic nature of operations and equipment. Ultimately this can lead to rough estimates and poor results in meeting the projects’ objectives. This research aims to provide a decision-support tool for earthmoving operations and achieve the best arrangement of equipment based on project objectives and equipment specifications by utilizing historical data. Operation simulation is identified as an efficient technique to model and analyze the stochastic aspects of the cost and duration of earthmoving operations in construction projects. Therefore, two simulation models—namely the Decision-Support Model and the Estimation Model, have been developed in the Symphony.net modeling environment to address the industry needs. The Decision-Support Model provides the best arrangement of equipment to maximize global resource utilization. In contrast, the Estimation Model captures more of the project details and compares various equipment arrangements. In this paper, these models are created, and the modeling logic is validated through a case study employing a real-world earthmoving project that demonstrates the model’s capabilities. The decision support model showed promising results in determining the optimized fleet selection when considering equipment and shift variations, and the cost model helped better quantifying the impact of the decision on the cost and profit of the project. This modeling approach can be reproduced by others in any case of interest to gain optimal fleet management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Modelling)
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Open AccessReview
Overview of Energy Management and Leakage Control Systems for Smart Water Grids and Digital Water
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 134-155; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020009 - 24 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 783
Abstract
Current and future smart cities are moving towards the zero-net energy use concept. To this end, the built environment should also be designed for efficient energy use and play a significant role in the production of such energy. At present, this is achieved [...] Read more.
Current and future smart cities are moving towards the zero-net energy use concept. To this end, the built environment should also be designed for efficient energy use and play a significant role in the production of such energy. At present, this is achieved by focusing on energy demand in buildings and to the renewable trade-off related to smart power grids. However, urban water distribution systems constantly carry an excess of hydraulic energy that can potentially be recovered to produce electricity. This paper presents a comprehensive review of current strategies for energy production by reviewing the state-of-the-art of smart water systems. New technologies (such as cyber-physical systems, digital twins, blockchain) and new methodologies (network dynamics, geometric deep learning) associated with digital water are also discussed. The paper then focuses on modelling the installation of both micro-turbines and pumps as turbines, instead of/together with pressure reduction valves, to further demonstrate the energy-recovery methods which will enable water network partitioning into district metered areas. The associated benefits on leakage control, as a source of energy, and for contributing to overall network resilience are also highlighted. The paper concludes by presenting future research directions. Notably, digital water is proposed as the main research and operational direction for current and future Water Distribution Systems (WDS) and as a holistic, data-centred framework for the operation and management of water networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
A New Approach to Exploring the Relationship between Weather Phenomenon and Truck Traffic Volume in the Cold Region Highway Network
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 122-133; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020008 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Weather events are arbitrary, and this makes it difficult to incorporate weather parameters into transportation models. Recent research on traffic weather interaction analysis conducted at the University of Regina, Canada reported traffic variations with cold temperatures and snowfall. The research team at the [...] Read more.
Weather events are arbitrary, and this makes it difficult to incorporate weather parameters into transportation models. Recent research on traffic weather interaction analysis conducted at the University of Regina, Canada reported traffic variations with cold temperatures and snowfall. The research team at the University of Regina proposed a linear association between snowfall and temperature to analyze the traffic variation on provincial highways during winter months. The variations were studies with the inclusion of the expected daily volume factor as an independent variable in the model structure. However, the study did not analyze the nature of the association between daily truck traffic volume and snowfall. Based on these drawbacks of the past studies, in this research, the objective is to focus on the effects of snow and temperature on traffic volume changes with a methodological help of Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC), which stems from the maximal information-based nonparametric exploration (MINE) statistics. The results obtained from the analysis indicate that the relationship between snow and truck traffic is non-linear. However, the study could not establish any functional relationship between snowfall and daily truck volume. It is desired to further conduct an hourly analysis to explore a new relationship between snowfall and truck volume. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Modelling in Engineering Structures)
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Open AccessArticle
Model Driven Interoperability for System Engineering
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 94-121; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/modelling1020007 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 561
Abstract
To keep up to date, manufacturing enterprises need to use the latest results from the ICT sector, especially when collaborating with external partners in a supply chain and exchanging products and data. This has led to dealing with an increasing amount of heterogeneous [...] Read more.
To keep up to date, manufacturing enterprises need to use the latest results from the ICT sector, especially when collaborating with external partners in a supply chain and exchanging products and data. This has led to dealing with an increasing amount of heterogeneous information exchanged between partners including machines (physical means), humans and IT in the Supply Chain of ICT Systems (SC-ICTS). In this context, interoperability management is becoming more and more critical, but paradoxically, it is not yet fully efficiently anticipated, controlled and accompanied to recover from incompatibilities issues or failures. This paper intends to present how enterprise modeling, enterprise interoperability and model driven approaches can lead, together with system engineering architecture, to contribute to developing and improving the interoperability in the SC-ICTs. Model Driven System Engineering Architecture (MDSEA) is based on Enterprise Modeling using GRAI Model and its extensions. It gives enterprise internal developments guidelines, but originally, MDSEA is not the considering interoperability that is required between partners when setting a collaboration in the frame of SC-ICTS. As a result, the MDSEA, extended with interoperability concerns, led to the design of the MDISE (Model Driven Interoperability System Engineering) framework, which capitalizes on the research on enterprise interoperability. To finish, some proposals are made to extend the Model System Tool Box (MSTB) and the use of MDISE for Cyber Physical System (CPS) that are relevant components of SC-ICTS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers of Modelling)
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Open AccessArticle
Tensile Fracture Mechanism of Masonry Wallettes Parallel to Bed Joints: A Stochastic Discontinuum Analysis
Modelling 2020, 1(2), 78-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/modelling1020006 - 08 Oct 2020
Viewed by 708
Abstract
Nonhomogeneous material characteristics of masonry lead to complex fracture mechanisms, which require substantial analysis regarding the influence of masonry constituents. In this context, this study presents a discontinuum modeling strategy, based on the discrete element method, developed to investigate the tensile fracture mechanism [...] Read more.
Nonhomogeneous material characteristics of masonry lead to complex fracture mechanisms, which require substantial analysis regarding the influence of masonry constituents. In this context, this study presents a discontinuum modeling strategy, based on the discrete element method, developed to investigate the tensile fracture mechanism of masonry wallettes parallel to the bed joints considering the inherent variation in the material properties. The applied numerical approach utilizes polyhedral blocks to represent masonry and integrate the equations of motion explicitly to compute nodal velocities for each block in the system. The mechanical interaction between the adjacent blocks is computed at the active contact points, where the contact stresses are calculated and updated based on the implemented contact constitutive models. In this research, different fracture mechanisms of masonry wallettes under tension are explored developing at the unit–mortar interface and/or within the units. The contact properties are determined based on certain statistical variations. Emphasis is given to the influence of the material properties on the fracture mechanism and capacity of the masonry assemblages. The results of the analysis reveal and quantify the importance of the contact properties for unit and unit–mortar interfaces (e.g., tensile strength, cohesion, and friction coefficient) in terms of capacity and corresponding fracture mechanism for masonry wallettes. Full article
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