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Trauma Care, Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2021) – 5 articles

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Article
Growth after Trauma: The Role of Self-Compassion following Hurricane Harvey
Trauma Care 2021, 1(2), 119-129; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1020011 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 351
Abstract
The psychological impact of a traumatic event includes potentially both negative (e.g., PTSD, depression, and anxiety) as well as positive (e.g., post-traumatic growth) outcomes. The construct of self-compassion—the capacity to be compassionate towards oneself—has been associated with various psychological benefits following disasters; however, [...] Read more.
The psychological impact of a traumatic event includes potentially both negative (e.g., PTSD, depression, and anxiety) as well as positive (e.g., post-traumatic growth) outcomes. The construct of self-compassion—the capacity to be compassionate towards oneself—has been associated with various psychological benefits following disasters; however, the association between self-compassion and PTG have not yet been examined in natural disaster settings. This study aimed to examine the relationship between these constructs, with self-compassion as a potential mediator in this relationship. Three hundred and nine undergraduate students affected by the impact of Hurricane Harvey were recruited. Statistical analyses revealed a significant mediation effect, with PTSD symptoms being both directly and indirectly (via self-compassion) associated with PTG. The capacity to grow from traumatic experiences is mediated by one’s disposition to be compassionate towards oneself, serving as a resilience factor to provide individuals with the cognitive and emotional resources to grow after trauma. These findings have significant implications in both clinical and research contexts, including the use of self-compassion interventions to protect against PTSD and other comorbid psychopathology and also act as a catalyst for growth following natural disaster events. Full article
Article
Symptoms of PTSD and Depression among Central American Immigrant Youth
Trauma Care 2021, 1(2), 99-118; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1020010 - 11 Aug 2021
Viewed by 725
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to explore the mental health challenges that Central American immigrant youth face before and after arriving in the United States. This population is hard to reach, marginalized, and disproportionately exposed to trauma from a young age. This [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to explore the mental health challenges that Central American immigrant youth face before and after arriving in the United States. This population is hard to reach, marginalized, and disproportionately exposed to trauma from a young age. This paper investigates the mental health stressors experienced by Central American immigrant youth and asylum seekers, including unaccompanied minors, surveyed in the U.S. in 2017. This mixed methods study uses qualitative data from interviews along with close-ended questions and the validated PHQ-8 Questionnaire and the Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS). These new migrants face numerous challenges to mental health, increased psychopathological risk exacerbated by high levels of violence and low state-capacity in their countries of origin, restrictive immigration policies, the fear of deportation for themselves and their family members, and the pressure to integrate once in the U.S. We find that Central American youth have seen improvements in their self-reported mental health after migrating to the U.S., but remain at risk of further trauma exposure, depression, and PTSD. We find that they exhibit a disproportionate likelihood of having lived through traumatizing experiences that put them at higher risk for psychological distress and disorders that may create obstacles to integration. These can, in turn, create new stressors that exacerbate PTSD, depression, and anxiety. These conditions can be minimized through programs that aid immigrant integration and mental health. Full article
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Article
The Model of Systemic Relational Violence: Conceptualizing IPV as a Method of Continual and Enforced Domination
Trauma Care 2021, 1(2), 87-98; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1020009 - 28 Jul 2021
Viewed by 412
Abstract
This paper provides a theoretical and historical background of explanatory and descriptive models of domestic, family, and interpersonal violence and introduces a new model that seeks to correct aspects of those models that have been heavily critiqued. The Model of Systemic Relational Violence [...] Read more.
This paper provides a theoretical and historical background of explanatory and descriptive models of domestic, family, and interpersonal violence and introduces a new model that seeks to correct aspects of those models that have been heavily critiqued. The Model of Systemic Relational Violence reconceptualizes violent relationships with coercive control and emotional and psychological violence at the core and more traditional event-based markers of relationship violence as peripheral enforcement tactics in a more extensive system of interpersonal domination. This new model is built on the insights and perspectives of survivors of relational violence and the service providers who support them. It has been developed to be applied in a variety of diverse relationships and contexts. Full article
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Article
Association of Unhealthy Behaviors with Self-Harm in Chinese Adolescents: A Study Using Latent Class Analysis
Trauma Care 2021, 1(2), 75-86; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1020008 - 26 Jul 2021
Viewed by 344
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated the link between individual unhealthy behaviors and self-harm, but little is known about the influence of multiple unhealthy behaviors on self-harm among adolescents. This study aims to identify the potential patterns of unhealthy behaviors and to examine their associations [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated the link between individual unhealthy behaviors and self-harm, but little is known about the influence of multiple unhealthy behaviors on self-harm among adolescents. This study aims to identify the potential patterns of unhealthy behaviors and to examine their associations with self-harm, which may become a useful tool for the screening of self-harm in adolescents. A total of 22,628 middle school students (10,990 males and 11,638 females) in six cities was enrolled in this study by multistage stratified cluster sampling from November 2015 to January 2016. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed based on five kinds of unhealthy behaviors (unhealthy losing weight (ULW), tobacco use (TU), alcohol use (AU), screen time (ST), and mobile phone dependence (MPD)). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine associations between identified subgroups and self-harm. Four subgroups of unhealthy behaviors were identified. Class 1 (71.2%) had the lowest engagement in unhealthy behaviors. Class 2 ((ULW/MPD), 22.3%) had a relatively high prevalence of ULW and MPD. Class 3 ((TU/AU/ST), 3.2%) had a relatively high prevalence of TU, AU, and ST. Class 4 (3.3%) consistently engaged in unhealthy behaviors. Compared to class 1, class 2 (ULW/MPD), class 3 (TU/AU/ST), and class 4 showed OR (95%CI) values of 2.101 (1.964–2.248), 2.153 (1.839–2.520), and 3.979 (3.407–4.645) (p < 0.001 for each), respectively. Class 1, class 2 (ULW/MPD), and class 3 (TU/AU/ST) engagement in unhealthy behaviors was associated with increased self-harm. These findings strongly suggested that self-harm prevention efforts focusing on multiple unhealthy behaviors should be seriously considered for early detection of self-harm. Full article
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Article
Common Occupational Trauma: Is There a Relationship with Workers’ Mental Health?
Trauma Care 2021, 1(2), 66-74; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/traumacare1020007 - 02 Jul 2021
Viewed by 434
Abstract
Exposure to major trauma can have significant consequences for workers’ mental health, but common trauma may also result in poor mental health outcomes. This cross-sectional study retrospectively investigated the occurrence of common physical or psychological workplace trauma in 901 health, social service, and [...] Read more.
Exposure to major trauma can have significant consequences for workers’ mental health, but common trauma may also result in poor mental health outcomes. This cross-sectional study retrospectively investigated the occurrence of common physical or psychological workplace trauma in 901 health, social service, and trading company workers and studied these experiences in relation to occupational stress, anxiety, and depression. Stress was measured with the effort/reward imbalance (ERI) model while anxiety and depression were evaluated with the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale (GADS). Healthcare workers reported a high frequency of trauma and significantly higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression than other workers. Even in the entire population of workers of the various professional categories, verbal violence (harassment and threats), traffic accidents, home injuries, and family bereavement were significantly associated with high levels of stress, anxiety, and depression. Major trauma survivors are known to be at increased risk of mental disorders and require support in the workplace, however, even minor repeated emotional trauma and injuries can affect mental health. During mandatory health surveillance, the occupational physician should systematically collect information on minor trauma and mental health outcomes when assessing the occupational fitness of the workers assigned to him. Full article
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