Special Issue "Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications"

A special issue of C (ISSN 2311-5629).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jorge Bedia
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: carbon materials; MOFs; adsorption; photocatalysis
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Carolina Belver
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
Interests: chemical engineering; materials science; adsorption; photocatalysis; seminconductors; MOFs
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbon-based materials, such as chars, activated carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional graphene nanosheets, have shown great potential for a wide variety of applications. These materials have innumerable advantages, such as low-cost, tunable porosity, variety of morphology, ease of processability, and possible modification of surface properties by heteroatom doping. Many of the carbon-based compounds are currently obtained from fossil fuels. However, the unstable cost and supply of the fossil fuels have focused attention on the synthesis of carbon materials from biomass instead. Biomass is an abundant renewable resource that has received growing attention as a raw material for production of advanced carbon-based materials, because of the added value of the final products and the environmental friendly characteristics of the synthesis processes. In this respect, various routes have been used to synthesize diverse structures of biomass-based carbon materials, including carbonization, hydrocarbonization or activation.

The main aim of this Special Issue of C—Journal of Carbon Research is to present the most relevant and recent insights in the field of synthesis of biomass-derived carbons for sustainable applications, including adsorption, catalysis and/or energy storage applications.

Some of the key topics relevant to this Special Issue are:

  • Synthesis and applications of hydrochars from hydrothermal carbonization of biomass.
  • Preparation and characterization of biomass-derived activated carbons for adsorption processes with special attention to the removal of emerging contaminants and heavy metals.
  • Synthesis of carbon-based materials from biomass as bulk catalysts or supports for catalysis or photocatalysis.
  • Energy storage in carbon materials obtained from biomass.
  • Biomass-derived carbons for batteries.
  • Porous carbons materials obtained from biomass for carbon dioxide capture.

We look forward to your submission.

Dr. Jorge Bedia
Dr. Carolina Belver
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. C is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biomass
  • Carbon materials
  • Activation
  • Carbonization
  • Hydrocarbonization
  • Energy storage
  • Catalysis
  • Carbon dioxide capture
  • Batteries

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Editorial
Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications
C 2019, 5(4), 59; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c5040059 - 26 Sep 2019
Viewed by 864
Abstract
Carbon-based materials, such as chars, activated carbons, one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional graphene nanosheets, have shown great potential for a wide variety of applications [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Article
Physicochemical Properties of Activated Carbon: Their Effect on the Adsorption of Pharmaceutical Compounds and Adsorbate–Adsorbent Interactions
C 2018, 4(4), 62; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c4040062 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 3654
Abstract
The adsorption of salicylic acid, acetaminophen, and methylparaben (pharmaceutical products derived from phenol) on carbons activated with different surface chemistries was carried out. We evaluated the effect of the physicochemical properties of the adsorbent and adsorbates on the adsorption capacity. A study of [...] Read more.
The adsorption of salicylic acid, acetaminophen, and methylparaben (pharmaceutical products derived from phenol) on carbons activated with different surface chemistries was carried out. We evaluated the effect of the physicochemical properties of the adsorbent and adsorbates on the adsorption capacity. A study of the adsorbate–adsorbent interactions via immersion calorimetry in the analytes solutions at different concentrations was included, in addition to the equilibrium data analysis. The results show that the pharmaceutical compounds (2.28–0.71 mmol g−1) have lower adsorption capacities in the activated carbon with the highest content of oxygenated groups (acids), while the activated carbons with amphoteric characteristics increase the capacities of adsorption (2.60–1.38 mmol g−1). This behavior may be associated with the increased affinity between the adsorbent and solvent due to the presence of polar groups, which was corroborated by the high immersion enthalpy value in water (ΔHimmH2O = −66.6 J g−1). The equilibrium data, adjusted to the Freundlich adsorption model, indicated that the heterogeneous adsorption processes involve immersion enthalpy values between −9.42 and −24.3 J g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Activated Carbons Derived from High-Temperature Pyrolysis of Lignocellulosic Biomass
C 2018, 4(3), 51; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c4030051 - 12 Sep 2018
Cited by 57 | Viewed by 3324
Abstract
Biomass pyrolysis to produce biofuel and hydrogen yields large amounts of charred byproducts with low commercial value. A study was conducted to evaluate their potential for being converted into higher value activated carbons by a low-cost process. Six chars derived from various lignocellulosic [...] Read more.
Biomass pyrolysis to produce biofuel and hydrogen yields large amounts of charred byproducts with low commercial value. A study was conducted to evaluate their potential for being converted into higher value activated carbons by a low-cost process. Six chars derived from various lignocellulosic precursors were activated in CO2 at 800 °C to 30–35% weight loss, and their surface area and porosity were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. It was found that, in similar activation conditions, the surface area of the activated carbons correlates with the activation energy of the oxidation reaction by CO2, which in turn varies inversely with the carbon yield after thermolysis in nitrogen at 1000 °C. Since lignin is the most thermally-stable component of lignocellulosic biomass, these results demonstrate, indirectly, that robust, lignin-rich vegetal precursors are to be preferred to produce higher quality activated carbons. The chars derived from white pine (pinus strobus) and chestnut oak (quercus prinus) were converted to activated carbons with the highest surface area (900–1100 m2/g) and largest mesopores volume (0.85–1.06 cm3/g). These activated carbons have properties similar to those of commercially-available activated carbons used successfully for removal of pollutants from aqueous solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Comparison of the Properties of Activated Carbons Produced in One-Stage and Two-Stage Processes
C 2018, 4(3), 41; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c4030041 - 16 Jul 2018
Cited by 40 | Viewed by 2857
Abstract
Activated carbons (ACs) can be produced from biomass in a thermal process either in a direct carbonization-activation process or by first carbonizing the biomass and later activating the bio-chars into activated carbons. The properties of the ACs are dependent on the type of [...] Read more.
Activated carbons (ACs) can be produced from biomass in a thermal process either in a direct carbonization-activation process or by first carbonizing the biomass and later activating the bio-chars into activated carbons. The properties of the ACs are dependent on the type of process used for production. In this study, the properties of activated carbons produced in one-stage and two-stage processes are considered. Activated carbons were produced by physical activation of two types of starting materials: bio chars produced from spruce and birch chips in a commercial carbonization plant and from the corresponding raw chips. The activated carbons produced were characterized regarding specific surfaces, pore volumes, and pore size distributions. The un-activated bio chars had varying surface areas, 190 and 140 m2 g−1 for birch and spruce, respectively, and pore volumes of 0.092 and 0.067 cm3 g−1, respectively. On the other hand, 530–617 and 647–679 m2 g−1 for activated bio chars from birch and spruce, respectively, and pore volumes 0.366–0.509 and 0.545–0.555 cm3 g−1, respectively, were obtained. According to the results obtained, two slightly different types of activated carbons are produced depending on whether a one-stage or a two-stage carbonization and activation process is used. The ACs produced in the one-stage process had higher specific surface areas (SSA), according to the BET-model (Brunauer–Emmett–Teller), compared to the ones produced in a two-stage process (761–940 m2 g−1 vs. 540–650 m2 g−1, respectively). In addition, total pore volumes were higher in ACs from the one-stage process, but development of micro-pores was greater compared to those of the two-stage process. This indicates that the process can have an influence on the ACs’ porosity. There was no significant difference in total carbon content in general between the one-stage and two-stage processes for spruce and birch samples, but some differences were seen between the starting materials. Especially in the one-stage procedure with 2 and 4 h steam activation, there was nearly a 10% difference in carbon content between the spruce and birch samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
High-Surface-Area Mesoporous Activated Carbon from Hemp Bast Fiber Using Hydrothermal Processing
C 2018, 4(3), 38; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c4030038 - 25 Jun 2018
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2753
Abstract
Synthesis of activated carbon from waste biomass is of current interest towards sustainability. The properties of biomass-derived activated carbon largely depend on the carbonization process. This study reports the preparation of mesoporous activated carbon with extremely high surface area from hemp bast fiber [...] Read more.
Synthesis of activated carbon from waste biomass is of current interest towards sustainability. The properties of biomass-derived activated carbon largely depend on the carbonization process. This study reports the preparation of mesoporous activated carbon with extremely high surface area from hemp bast fiber using hydrothermal processing. Hot water processing (390–500 °C) followed by activation using KOH and NaOH was investigated at different mass ratios. The described approach was found to enhance the mesoporosity (centered at 3.0 to 4.5 nm) of the hemp-derived activated carbon (HAC) from activation [confirmed by BJH (Barrett-Joyner-Halenda) pore size distribution and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) imaging]. BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) results showed that the product has an extremely high surface area (2425 m2/g) while the surface functional groups (–OH, –COOH, C=C/C–C) were confirmed by FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and further quantified by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Increasing KOH concentration was found to enhance the surface area with a maximum biochar-to-KOH (g/g) ratio of 1:3. The crystallite domain size of HAC was determined using Raman spectroscopy of different wavelengths. The procedure described in this study is an environmentally friendly scalable route for the mass production of activated carbon using hemp fiber. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Review
A Review on the Synthesis and Characterization of Biomass-Derived Carbons for Adsorption of Emerging Contaminants from Water
C 2018, 4(4), 63; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c4040063 - 19 Nov 2018
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3862
Abstract
This review analyzes the preparation and characterization of biomass-derived carbons and their application as adsorbents of emerging contaminants from water. The study begins by identifying the different types of emerging contaminants more often found in water streams, including a brief reference to the [...] Read more.
This review analyzes the preparation and characterization of biomass-derived carbons and their application as adsorbents of emerging contaminants from water. The study begins by identifying the different types of emerging contaminants more often found in water streams, including a brief reference to the available technologies for their removal. It also describes the biomass sources that could be used for the synthesis of biochars and activated carbons (AC). The characterization of the adsorbents and the different approaches that can be followed to learn about the adsorption processes are also detailed. Finally, the work reviews literature studies focused on the adsorption of emerging contaminants on biochars and activated carbons synthesized from biomass precursors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Review
Design and Preparation of Biomass-Derived Carbon Materials for Supercapacitors: A Review
C 2018, 4(4), 53; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/c4040053 - 25 Sep 2018
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 3694
Abstract
The synthesis and application of biomass-derived carbon in energy storage have drawn increasing research attention due to the ease of fabrication, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of the meso/microporous carbon produced from various biological precursors, including plants, fruits, microorganisms, and animals. Compared to the artificial [...] Read more.
The synthesis and application of biomass-derived carbon in energy storage have drawn increasing research attention due to the ease of fabrication, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of the meso/microporous carbon produced from various biological precursors, including plants, fruits, microorganisms, and animals. Compared to the artificial nanostructured carbons, such as fullerene, carbon nanotube and graphene, the biomass-derived carbons may obtain superior capacitance, rate performance and stability in supercapacitor applications ascribing to their intrinsic nanoporous and hierarchical structures. However, challenges remain in processing techniques to obtain biomass-derived carbons with high carbon yield, high energy density, and controllable graphitic microstructures, which may require a clear understanding over the chemical and elemental compositions, and the intrinsic microstructural characteristics of the biological precursors. Herein we present comprehensive analyses over the impacts of the chemical and elemental compositions of the precursors on the carbon yield of the biomass, as well as the mechanism of chemical activation on the nanoporous structure development of the biomass-derived carbons. The structure–property relationship and functional performance of various biomass-derived carbons for supercapacitor applications are also discussed in detail and compared. Finally, useful insights are also provided for the improvements of biomass-derived carbons in supercapacitor applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbons from Biomasic Waste and Their Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Back to TopTop