Special Issue "Nanomaterials for Oral Medicine"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Maria Giovanna Gandolfi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology, Endodontic Clinical Section, Department of Odontostomatological Science, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy
Interests: biomaterials; dental materials; dental implants; stem cells; tissue regeneration

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Over the past few years, the design and synthesis of nanostructured materials has represented a cutting-edge topic that has attracted many researchers from different fields, mainly in medicine, oral medicine, and dentistry.

This Special Issue aims to cover the synthesis and functionalization of different nanomaterials, as well as their characterization and application in oral medicine, nanodentistry, and nanotechnology in dentistry.

For this Special Issue, we are interested in several classes of nanomaterials: bone grafts, dental filling, implant materials and implant coating, nanogels, polymeric materials, peptide-based materials, hybrid bionanomaterials, biocomposite materials, nanoporous materials, bioactive scaffolds, nanostructured materials, nanocrystalline materials, nanomaterials functionalized by proteins or other biomolecules to their surface, bioceramics, calcium phosphates (CaP and HA), calcium silicate-based, carbon-based (graphene, carbon nanotubes) materials, nanoparticles for bioimaging or therapy (thermal therapy, drug delivery, controlled release), magnetic materials (magnetite, maghemite), silica, zirconia, silver, titania, and nanoparticles acting as antimicrobial agent.

In particular, we are seeking papers focused on:

Smart nanomaterials designed to interact with biological tissues and fluids, and the biological aspect of nanostructures;

Nanoparticles for oral disease preventive drugs, prostheses and for teeth implantation;

Nanomaterials delivering active substances or drugs, preventing and/or curing oral diseases and maintain oral health care. 

Your participation in the present Special Issue on “Nanomaterials for Oral Medicine” will provide the readers of Nanomaterials with an overview of the latest research on nanomaterials having great potential and/or providing decisive advantages regarding their use in oral medicine and nanodentistry. nanomaterials for 3D printing, 3D printed functional nanomaterials.

Prof. Dr. Maria Giovanna Gandolfi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Article
Green Hydrogels Composed of Sodium Mannuronate/Guluronate, Gelatin and Biointeractive Calcium Silicates/Dicalcium Phosphate Dihydrate Designed for Oral Bone Defects Regeneration
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3439; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nano11123439 - 18 Dec 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Innovative green, eco-friendly, and biologically derived hydrogels for non-load bearing bone sites were conceived and produced. Natural polysaccharides (copolymers of sodium D-mannuronate and L-guluronate) with natural polypeptides (gelatin) and bioactive mineral fillers (calcium silicates CaSi and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate DCPD) were used to [...] Read more.
Innovative green, eco-friendly, and biologically derived hydrogels for non-load bearing bone sites were conceived and produced. Natural polysaccharides (copolymers of sodium D-mannuronate and L-guluronate) with natural polypeptides (gelatin) and bioactive mineral fillers (calcium silicates CaSi and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate DCPD) were used to obtain eco-sustainable biomaterials for oral bone defects. Three PP-x:y formulations were prepared (PP-16:16, PP-33:22, and PP-31:31), where PP represents the polysaccharide/polypeptide matrix and x and y represent the weight % of CaSi and DCPD, respectively. Hydrogels were tested for their chemical-physical properties (calcium release and alkalizing activity in deionized water, porosity, solubility, water sorption, radiopacity), surface microchemistry and micromorphology, apatite nucleation in HBSS by ESEM-EDX, FT-Raman, and micro-Raman spectroscopies. The expression of vascular (CD31) and osteogenic (alkaline phosphatase ALP and osteocalcin OCN) markers by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human vascular walls, cultured in direct contact with hydrogels or with 10% of extracts was analysed. All mineral-filled hydrogels, in particular PP-31:31 and PP-33:22, released Calcium ions and alkalized the soaking water for three days. Calcium ion leakage was high at all the endpoints (3 h–28 d), while pH values were high at 3 h–3 d and then significantly decreased after seven days (p < 0.05). Porosity, solubility, and water sorption were higher for PP-31:31 (p < 0.05). The ESEM of fresh samples showed a compact structure with a few pores containing small mineral granules agglomerated in some areas (size 5–20 microns). PP-CTRL degraded after 1–2 weeks in HBSS. EDX spectroscopy revealed constitutional compounds and elements of the hydrogel (C, O, N, and S) and of the mineral powders (Ca, Si and P). After 28 days in HBSS, the mineral-filled hydrogels revealed a more porous structure, partially covered with a thicker mineral layer on PP-31:31. EDX analyses of the mineral coating showed Ca and P, and Raman revealed the presence of B-type carbonated apatite and calcite. MSCs cultured in contact with mineral-filled hydrogels revealed the expression of genes related to vascular (CD31) and osteogenic (mainly OCN) differentiation. Lower gene expression was found when cells were cultured with extracts added to the culture medium. The incorporation of biointeractive mineral powders in a green bio-derived algae-based matrix allowed to produce bioactive porous hydrogels able to release biologically relevant ions and create a suitable micro-environment for stem cells, resulting in interesting materials for bone regeneration and healing in oral bone defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Oral Medicine)
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Article
Calcium Silicate-Based Biocompatible Light-Curable Dental Material for Dental Pulpal Complex
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 596; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nano11030596 - 27 Feb 2021
Viewed by 905
Abstract
Dental caries causes tooth defects and clinical treatment is essential. To prevent further damage and protect healthy teeth, appropriate dental material is a need. However, the biocompatibility of dental material is needed to secure the oral environment. For this purpose, biocompatible materials were [...] Read more.
Dental caries causes tooth defects and clinical treatment is essential. To prevent further damage and protect healthy teeth, appropriate dental material is a need. However, the biocompatibility of dental material is needed to secure the oral environment. For this purpose, biocompatible materials were investigated for incorporated with dental capping material. Among them, nanomaterials are applied to dental materials to enhance their chemical, mechanical, and biological properties. This research aimed to study the physicochemical and mechanical properties and biocompatibility of a recently introduced light-curable mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-like material without bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA). To overcome the compromised mechanical properties in the absence of Bis-GMA, silica nanoparticles were synthesized and blended with a dental polymer for the formation of a nano-network. This material was compared with a conventional light-curable MTA-like material that contains Bis-GMA. Investigation of the physiochemical properties followed ISO 4049. Hydroxyl and calcium ion release from the materials was measured over 21 days. The Vickers hardness test and three-point flexural strength test were used to assess the mechanical properties. Specimens were immersed in solutions that mimicked human body plasma for seven days, and surface characteristics were analyzed. Biological properties were assessed by cytotoxicity and biomineralization tests. There was no significant difference between the tested materials with respect to overall physicochemical properties and released calcium ions. The newly produced material released more calcium ions on the third day, but 14 days later, the other material containing Bis-GMA released higher levels of calcium ions. The microhardness was reduced in a low pH environment, and differences between the specimens were observed. The flexural strength of the newly developed material was significantly higher, and different surface morphologies were detected. The recently produced extract showed higher cell viability at an extract concentration of 100%, while mineralization was clear at the conventional concentration of 25%. No significant changes in the physical properties between Bis-GMA incorporate material and nanoparticle incorporate materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Oral Medicine)
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Review

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Review
Emerging Nanotechnology in Non-Surgical Periodontal Therapy in Animal Models: A Systematic Review
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1414; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/nano10071414 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases. Its treatment, mostly mechanical and non-surgical, shows limitations. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of nanoparticles as a treatment alone in non-surgical periodontal therapy in animal models. A systematic [...] Read more.
Periodontitis is one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases. Its treatment, mostly mechanical and non-surgical, shows limitations. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the effect of nanoparticles as a treatment alone in non-surgical periodontal therapy in animal models. A systematic search was conducted in Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library and Science Direct. The eligibility criteria were: studies (i) using nanoparticles as chemotherapeutic agent or as delivery system; (ii) including preclinical controlled animal model (experimental periodontitis); (iii) reporting alveolar bone loss; (iv) written in English; and (v) published up to June 2019. Risk of bias was evaluated according to the SYstematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation. On the 1324 eligible studies, 11 were included. All reported advantages in using nanoparticles for the treatment of periodontitis, highlighted by a reduction in bone loss. Agents modulating inflammation seem to be more relevant than antibiotics, in terms of efficiency and risk of antibiotic resistance. In addition, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) or drugs used as their own carrier appear to be the most interesting nanoparticles in terms of biocompatibility. Risk of bias assessment highlighted many criteria scored as unclear. There are encouraging preclinical data of using nanoparticles as a contribution to the treatment of periodontitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials for Oral Medicine)
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