Special Issue "Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods"

A special issue of Processes (ISSN 2227-9717). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Processes".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 April 2022.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Yonghui Li
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
Interests: bakery science and chemistry; functional grain foods; grain protein chemistry, modification, and functionality; grain-derived bioactive compounds and peptides
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Shawn/Xiaorong Wu
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Grain Quality and Structure Research Unit, Center for Grain and Animal Health Research, USDA, ARS, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA
Interests: basic and application research on product quality and new uses related with hard winter wheat and grain sorghum including NIR sorting, milling, physical and chemical analysis of raw materials and end products

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are writing to invite you to submit a review or research paper to the upcoming Special Issue—“Processing and Property Analysis of Grain Foods”—in the journal Processes. Foods from grains and grain-derived ingredients are among the most important energy and nutrient source for humans. Cereals (e.g., wheat, rice, corn) have been the conventional food materials, while interest is growing in utilizing pseudocereals (e.g., buckwheat, quinoa, amaranth), pulses (e.g., dry peas, chickpea, dry beans), oilseeds (soybean, peanut, hempseed), and other grains for the development of various foods and food ingredients. Grain and food processing are key steps to converting raw grains to functional ingredients and producing palatable and nutritious end-products. Examples of grain-related processes include—but are not limited to—malting, drying, milling, fractionation, hydration, fermentation, extrusion, cooking, baking, frying, steaming, freezing, etc. Various physical and chemical changes and interactions are expected during these processes, which further affect the nutritional, texture, sensory, and many other quality properties of the products. Methods, protocols, and equipment have been developed to process, monitor, and control the processing parameters in order to achieve the desired end-product quality or functionality. This Special Issue focuses on grain processing innovations and the effect of both conventional and innovative grain processes on the properties of grain-derived ingredients, intermediates, and end products.

Dr. Yonghui Li
Dr. Shawn/Xiaorong Wu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Processes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • processing technology
  • cereals
  • pulses
  • oilseeds
  • ancient grains
  • food ingredients
  • milling
  • thermal processing
  • baking
  • fermentation
  • food properties
  • functionality
  • nutrition
  • sensory
  • texture

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

Article
Comprehensive Understanding of Roller Milling on the Physicochemical Properties of Red Lentil and Yellow Pea Flours
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1836; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9101836 - 15 Oct 2021
Viewed by 96
Abstract
The development of convenience foods by incorporating nutrient-rich pulses such as peas and lentils will tremendously alter the future of pulse and cereal industries. However, these pulses should be size-reduced before being incorporated into many food products. Therefore, an attempt was made to [...] Read more.
The development of convenience foods by incorporating nutrient-rich pulses such as peas and lentils will tremendously alter the future of pulse and cereal industries. However, these pulses should be size-reduced before being incorporated into many food products. Therefore, an attempt was made to adapt roller mill settings to produce de-husked yellow pea and red lentil flours. The milling flowsheets unique to yellow peas and red lentils were developed in producing small, medium, and large flours with maximum yield and flour quality. This study also investigated the differences in chemical composition, physical characteristics, and particle size distributions of the resultant six flour fractions. The kernel dimensions and physicochemical properties of the whole yellow pea and red lentils were also studied to develop customized mill settings. Overall, the mill settings had a significant effect on the physical properties of different particle-sized flours. The geometric mean diameters of different particle-sized red lentil flours were 56.05 μm (small), 67.01 μm (medium), and 97.17 μm (large), while for yellow pea flours they were 41.38 μm (small), 60.81 μm (medium), and 98.31 μm (large). The particle size distribution of all the flour types showed a bimodal distribution, except for the small-sized yellow pea flour. For both the pulse types, slightly more than 50% flour was approximately sizing 50 μm, 75 μm, and 100 μm for small, medium, and large settings, respectively. The chemical composition of the flour types remained practically the same for different-sized flours, fulfilling the objective of this current study. The damaged starch values for red lentil and yellow pea flour types increased with a decrease in flour particle size. Based on the Hausner’s ratios, the flowability of large-sized flour of red lentils could be described as passable; however, all the remaining five flour types were indicated as either poor or very poor. The findings of this study assist the millers to adapt yellow pea and red lentil milling technologies with minor modifications to the existing facilities. The study also helps in boosting the production of various baking products using pulse and wheat flour blends to enhance their nutritional quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Physicochemical and Nutritional Evaluation of Bread Incorporated with Ayocote Bean (Phaseolus coccineus) and Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1782; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9101782 - 06 Oct 2021
Viewed by 232
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical composition, thermal properties, quality, and sensorial characteristics of bread with substitution of wheat flour with ayocote bean (Phaseolus coccineus) or black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours at 10, 20, and [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the physicochemical composition, thermal properties, quality, and sensorial characteristics of bread with substitution of wheat flour with ayocote bean (Phaseolus coccineus) or black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flours at 10, 20, and 30%. Ayocote and black bean contain 21.06 and 23.94% of protein, 3.06 and 5.21% of crude fiber, and 3.1 and 5.21% of ash, respectively, directly influencing bread composition. Bread with ayocote and black bean presented higher values in those components in contrast with control bread. The protein content increased in a range of 14–34%; ash increased by 10% to double, and crude fiber also increased. In vitro protein digestibility was similar for bread with 10% of substitution and control, and it decreased in samples with 30% of wheat substitution. Thermal analysis by DSC denoted that the addition of those legumes reduces retrogradation, as seen in 45.33–65.65 °C endotherm, producing higher endotherms of amylose-lipid complexes and protein denaturalization. Finally, the addition of black bean and ayocote bean decreased specific volume when the replacement percentage was 30% black bean and 20 and 30% for ayocote. An increase in nutrient content without sensorial properties affectation could be observed in substitution around 10 and 20%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Evaluation of Hammermill Tip Speed, Air Assist, and Screen Hole Diameter on Ground Corn Characteristics
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1768; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9101768 - 01 Oct 2021
Viewed by 195
Abstract
This study was performed to evaluate hammermill tip speed, assistive airflow, and screen hole diameter on hammermill throughput and characteristics of ground corn. Corn was ground using two Andritz hammermills measuring 1 m in diameter each equipped with 72 hammers and 300 HP [...] Read more.
This study was performed to evaluate hammermill tip speed, assistive airflow, and screen hole diameter on hammermill throughput and characteristics of ground corn. Corn was ground using two Andritz hammermills measuring 1 m in diameter each equipped with 72 hammers and 300 HP motors. Treatments were arranged in a 3 × 3 × 3 factorial design with three tip speeds (3774, 4975, and 6176 m/min), three screen hole diameters (2.3, 3.9, and 6.3 mm), and three air flow rates (1062, 1416, and 1770 fan revolutions per minute). Corn was ground on three separate days to create three replications and treatments were randomized within day. Samples were collected and analyzed for moisture, particle size, and flowability characteristics. There was a 3-way interaction (p = 0.029) for standard deviation (Sgw). There was a screen hole diameter × hammer tip speed interaction (p < 0.001) for geometric mean particle size dgw (p < 0.001) and composite flow index (CFI) (p < 0.001). When tip speed increased from 3774 to 6176 m/min, the rate of decrease in dgw was greater as screen hole diameter increased from 2.3 to 6.3 mm. For CFI, increasing tip speed decreased the CFI of ground corn when ground using the 3.9 and 6.3 mm screen. However, when grinding corn using the 2.3 mm screen, there was no evidence of difference in CFI when increasing tip speed. In conclusion, the air flow rate did not influence dgw of corn, but hammer tip speed and screen size were altered and achieved a range of dgw from 304 to 617 µm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
Article
Effect of Pulse Type and Substitution Level on Dough Rheology and Bread Quality of Whole Wheat-Based Composite Flours
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1687; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091687 - 21 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 473
Abstract
Pulse flours are commonly added to food products to improve the functional properties, nutritional profiles, product quality and health benefits. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the partial replacement (0–25%) of whole wheat flour with diversified whole pulse flours (yellow pea, [...] Read more.
Pulse flours are commonly added to food products to improve the functional properties, nutritional profiles, product quality and health benefits. This study aimed at assessing the effects of the partial replacement (0–25%) of whole wheat flour with diversified whole pulse flours (yellow pea, green pea, red lentil, and chickpea) on dough properties and bread quality. The pulse flours had higher protein contents and ash, but lower moisture content and larger average particle size, compared to whole wheat flour. Increasing the substitution level of pulse flours decreased dough viscosity, stability, development time and bread volume, and accelerated bread retrogradation. The incorporation of 5% yellow pea flour led to a similar bread quality as that with only whole wheat flour. Among all the tested pulse flours, the composite flour containing yellow pea flour or chickpea flour had overall better potential for bread making by providing good dough handling properties and product quality. This study will benefit the development of more nutritious food products by combining cereal and pulse ingredients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Effect of Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide Treatment on the Quality Characteristics of Buckwheat-Based Composite Flour and Storage Stability of Fresh Noodles
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1522; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9091522 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 358
Abstract
In this study, the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide treatment on the physicochemical properties of buckwheat-based composited flour (buckwheat-wheat-gluten) and shelf-life of fresh buckwheat noodles (FBNs), as well as the textural qualities and sensory properties of noodles were investigated. Chlorine dioxide treatment significantly [...] Read more.
In this study, the effects of gaseous chlorine dioxide treatment on the physicochemical properties of buckwheat-based composited flour (buckwheat-wheat-gluten) and shelf-life of fresh buckwheat noodles (FBNs), as well as the textural qualities and sensory properties of noodles were investigated. Chlorine dioxide treatment significantly reduced the total plate count (TPC) and the total flavonoids content in the mixed flour (p < 0.05), but the whiteness, development time and stability time were all increased. During storage, the microbial growth and darkening rate of FBNs made from chlorine dioxide treated buckwheat-based composite flour (CDBF) were delayed significantly, slowing the deterioration and improving storage stability of buckwheat noodles. In addition, chlorine dioxide treatment had no apparent adverse effect on the cooking loss and sensory characteristics during noodle storage. This finding would provide a new concept for the production of “low bacterial buckwheat-based flour” and have important consequences for the application of gaseous chlorine dioxide in food industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Effects of Grinding Corn with Different Moisture Content on Subsequent Particle Size and Flowability
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1372; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9081372 - 05 Aug 2021
Viewed by 293
Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole-corn moisture and hammermill screen size on subsequent ground corn moisture, particle size and flowability. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial design with two moisture concentrations (14.5 and 16.7%), [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of whole-corn moisture and hammermill screen size on subsequent ground corn moisture, particle size and flowability. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial design with two moisture concentrations (14.5 and 16.7%), each ground using 2 hammermill screen sizes (3 mm and 6 mm). Corn was ground using a lab-scale 1.5 HP Bliss Hammermill at three separate timepoints to create three replications per treatment. Ground corn flowability was calculated using angle of repose (AOR), percent compressibility, and critical orifice diameter (COD) measurements to determine the composite flow index (CFI). There was no evidence for a screen size × corn moisture interaction for ground corn moisture content (MC), particle size, standard deviation, or flowability metrics. Grinding corn using a 3 mm screen resulted in decreased (p < 0.041) moisture content compared to corn ground using the 6 mm screen. There was a decrease (p < 0.031) in particle size from the 6 mm screen to the 3 mm, but no evidence of difference was observed for the standard deviation. There was a decrease (p < 0.030) in percent compressibility as screen size increased from 3 mm to 6 mm. Angle of repose tended to decrease (p < 0.056) when corn was ground using a 6 mm screen compared to a 3 mm screen. For the main effects of MC, 16.7% moisture corn had increased (p < 0.001) ground corn MC compared to 14.5%. The 14.5% moisture corn resulted in decreased (p < 0.050) particle size and an increased standard deviation compared to the 16.7% moisture corn. The increased MC of corn increased (p < 0.038) CFI and tended to decrease (p < 0.050) AOR and COD. In conclusion, decreasing hammermill screen size increased moisture loss by 0.55%, decreased corn particle size by 126 µm and resulted in poorer flowability as measured by percent compressibility and AOR. The higher moisture corn increased subsequent particle size by 89 µm and had improved flowability as measured by CFI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
Article
Changes in Hydrophobic Interactions among Gluten Proteins during Dough Formation
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1244; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071244 - 19 Jul 2021
Viewed by 337
Abstract
In this study, changes in hydrophobic interactions among gluten proteins were analyzed during dough mixing. Size-exclusion high-performance chromatography and two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis were performed on proteins extracted with 1-propanol by weakening the hydrophobic interaction. The amount of proteins extracted with 30% [...] Read more.
In this study, changes in hydrophobic interactions among gluten proteins were analyzed during dough mixing. Size-exclusion high-performance chromatography and two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis were performed on proteins extracted with 1-propanol by weakening the hydrophobic interaction. The amount of proteins extracted with 30% 1-propanol increased from the start of mixing to peak consistency, suggesting that the hydrophobic interactions among the strongly aggregated proteins weakened and resulted in disaggregation. The amount of proteins extracted with 10% 1-propanol decreased during hydration, indicating that these proteins aggregated through relatively weak hydrophobic interactions. The proteins that extractability decreased were mainly low molecular weight glutenin, α-gliadin, and γ-gliadin. The amount of monomeric proteins extracted with 30% 1-propanol decreased after peak consistency. The decreased protein was mainly ω-gliadin, indicating that ω-gliadin aggregated with other proteins through hydrophobic interactions. A front-face fluorescence analysis was performed on the dough with the addition of 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid or thioflavin T. The fluorescence intensity increased as a result of exposure to the hydrophobic groups of the gluten proteins and the formation of protein aggregates during dough mixing. These results indicate the importance of hydrophobic interactions in dough formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Evaluation of Physical Characteristics of Typical Maize Seeds in a Cold Area of North China Based on Principal Component Analysis
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1167; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071167 - 05 Jul 2021
Viewed by 724
Abstract
The physical properties of maize seeds are closely related to food processing and production. To study and evaluate the characteristics of maize seeds, typical maize seeds in a cold region of North China were used as test varieties. A variety of agricultural material [...] Read more.
The physical properties of maize seeds are closely related to food processing and production. To study and evaluate the characteristics of maize seeds, typical maize seeds in a cold region of North China were used as test varieties. A variety of agricultural material test benches were built to measure the maize seeds’ physical parameters, such as thousand-grain weight, moisture content, triaxial arithmetic mean particle size, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of rolling friction, angle of natural repose, coefficient of restitution, and stiffness coefficient. Principal component and cluster comprehensive analyses were used to simplify the characteristic parameter index used to judge the comprehensive score of maize seeds. The results showed that there were significant differences in the main physical characteristics parameters of the typical maize varieties in this cold area, and there were different degrees of correlation among the physical characteristics. Principal component analysis was used to extract the first three principal component factors, whose cumulative contribution rate was over 80%, representing most of the information of the original eight physical characteristic parameters, and had good representativeness and objectivity. According to the test results, the classification standard of the evaluation of the physical characteristics of 15 kinds of maize seeds were determined, and appropriate evaluations were conducted. The 15 kinds of maize seeds were clustered into four groups by cluster analysis, and the physical characteristics of each groups were different. This study provides a new idea for the evaluation and analysis of the physical properties of agricultural materials, and provides a new method for the screening and classification of food processing raw materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Effects of Different Amylose Contents of Foxtail Millet Flour Varieties on Textural Properties of Chinese Steamed Bread
Processes 2021, 9(7), 1131; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9071131 - 29 Jun 2021
Viewed by 346
Abstract
In order to improve the nutritional value and quality of steamed bread, and promote the industrial development of the whole-grain food industry, a texture analyzer was used to study the effects of cultivars of whole foxtail millet flour (WFMF) on the texture of [...] Read more.
In order to improve the nutritional value and quality of steamed bread, and promote the industrial development of the whole-grain food industry, a texture analyzer was used to study the effects of cultivars of whole foxtail millet flour (WFMF) on the texture of Chinese steamed bread (CSB). Orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was also conducted. The addition of different cultivars of WFMF significantly altered the height–diameter ratio, specific volume, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness of CSB (p < 0.05). Large amounts of foxtail millet flour significantly increased the hardness, gumminess and chewiness of the bread (p < 0.05), and the bread height–diameter ratio, specific volume, cohesiveness and springiness significantly decreased (p < 0.05). We screened sensory evaluation, chewiness, specific volume, and hardness as the signature differences in the quality components according to the variable influence on the projection (VIP) values. OPLS-DA could distinguish the addition levels of different samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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Article
Effect of Heat Resource Effectiveness Change on Rice Potential Yield in Southern China
Processes 2021, 9(5), 896; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/pr9050896 - 19 May 2021
Viewed by 433
Abstract
During the rice growing season, farmers’ decisions about cropping systems and seed varieties directly affect the utilization of heat resource, and eventually affect the potential yield. In this study, we used the hourly accumulated temperature model to calculate the available heat resource as [...] Read more.
During the rice growing season, farmers’ decisions about cropping systems and seed varieties directly affect the utilization of heat resource, and eventually affect the potential yield. In this study, we used the hourly accumulated temperature model to calculate the available heat resource as well as the effective heat resource in southern China. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis of the heat resource effectiveness during rice growing season and an impact assessment of heat resource effectiveness on rice potential yield and cereal yield reduction. The results showed that, during the period of 1951–2015, heat resource effectiveness generally declined in the rice cropping area of southern China. And this decrease worsened during the most recent three decades compared with the period of 1951–1980. A strong correlation was detected between heat resource effectiveness and rice potential yield in the study area. When the effective heat resource during the growing season increased by 1 °C·d, rice potential yield would increase by 14 kg ha−1. For each percentage increase in heat resource effectiveness, the rice potential yield reduction rate would go down by 0.65%. This agro-climatological study aims to offer a scientific basis for rice production decisions in southern China, such as when to plant, which varieties to choose and so on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Properties Analysis of Grain Foods)
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