Special Issue "Early Immune-Modulator Treatment in COVID-19"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Kyung-Yil Lee
Guest Editor
College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
Interests: immunopathogenesis and etiological substances, and early use of immune modulators (corticosteroids and other drugs) in viral infections
Dr. Seung-Beom Han
Guest Editor
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea
Interests: immunopathogenesis and etiological substances, and early use of immune modulators (corticosteroids and other drugs) in viral infections

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

At the present time, the pathophysiology of acute lung injury and extrapulmonary manifestations such as multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) in COVID-19 as well as in other respiratory infectious diseases such as influenza and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection remains unknown. However, it is known that the host immune system reacts against substances, not only those originating from pathogens, including toxins and pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), but also those originating from injured or infected host cells, including damage (danger)-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), pathogenic proteins, and pathogenic peptides. The host’s hyperactive or aberrant immune response against the infectious insults such as the substances derived from infected cells may be related to host cell injury. In cases of pneumonia, substances produced by injured lung cells can induce even greater inflammation if they are released into the systemic circulation or local environment. Therefore, it is crucial to control the initial hyperactive immune responses to reduce morbidity and prevent pneumonia progression. The early use of immune modulators, such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and biologics, is an option for treating patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

This Special Issue welcomes original or review articles, case reports related to any aspects of the early use of immune-modulators for patients with COVID-19 or other viral infections, and studies on MIS-C, PAMPs or DAMPs in COVID-19 or other intracellular pathogen infections.

Dr. Kyung-Yil Lee
Dr. Seung-Beom Han
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.


  • COVID-19
  • SARS-COV-2
  • pathogenesis
  • immune modulators
  • corticosteroids
  • intravenous immunoglobulin
  • biologics
  • pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
  • damage (danger)-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)
  • multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C)

Published Papers

There is no accepted submissions to this special issue at this moment.
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