Development of Agricultural and Food By-Product Resources and Animal Production to Achieve Food Sustainability

Dear Colleagues,

Livestock products such as meat and milk are the main sources of animal protein and can play an important role in improving human life. In order to develop sustainable food production technologies, the effective use of agriculture by-products and food residues can not only meet the nutritional needs of animals, but also contribute to the production of high-quality livestock products. Therefore, efficient livestock product production technology can not only reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of ruminants and promote the revitalization of local animal husbandry, but also provide a good supply of milk and meat and improve the living standards of local people. This multidisciplinary topic mainly publishes papers related to the effective use of by-product resources of agriculture and food industry to achieve sustainable animal product production technology development and application.

Prof. Dr. Yimin Cai
Prof. Dr. Zaenal Bachruddin
Prof. Dr. Jianguo Zhang
Topic Editors

Deadline for abstract submissions: 20 January 2022.
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 March 2022.

Topic Board

Prof. Dr. Yimin Cai
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor-in-Chief
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Japan
Interests: animal production; food by-product; food sustainability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Zaenal Bachruddin
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor
Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Interests: animal production; food by-product; food sustainability
Prof. Dr. Jianguo Zhang
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor
College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
Interests: animal production; food by-product; food sustainability

Keywords

  • agricultural by-product
  • animal product
  • animal protein
  • food residue
  • food sustainability
  • meat quality
  • metabolite
  • microbiota
  • milk production
  • nutritional value

Relevant Journals List

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Foods
foods
4.350 3.0 2012 16.04 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Microorganisms
microorganisms
4.128 1.7 2013 12.74 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Animals
animals
2.752 1.8 2011 15.6 Days 1800 CHF Submit
Agriculture
agriculture
2.925 2.5 2011 16.62 Days 1600 CHF Submit

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Article
Effects of Additives on Silage Fermentation Characteristic and In Vitro Digestibility of Perennial Oat at Different Maturity Stages on the Qinghai Tibetan
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2403; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9112403 - 22 Nov 2021
Abstract
To effectively use local grass resources to cover the winter feed shortage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of perennial oat (Helictotrichonvirescens Henr.) were investigated. Perennial oat was harvested at the heading/flowering stage, wilted under sunny [...] Read more.
To effectively use local grass resources to cover the winter feed shortage on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, the silage fermentation and in vitro digestibility of perennial oat (Helictotrichonvirescens Henr.) were investigated. Perennial oat was harvested at the heading/flowering stage, wilted under sunny conditions, chopped, vacuumed in small bag silos, and stored at ambient temperatures (5–15 °C) for 60 days. The silages were treated without (CK) or with local lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculant (IN1), commercial LAB inoculant (IN2), and sodium benzoate (BL). Control silages of perennial oat at early heading stage showed higher (p < 0.05) lactate and acetate contents and lower (p < 0.05) final pH, butyrate, and ammonia-N contents than those at the flowering stage. High levels of dry matter recovery (DMR) and crude protein (CP) were observed in IN1- and BL-treated silages, with high in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility. Compared to CK, additives increased (p < 0.05) aerobic stability by inhibiting yeasts, aerobic bacteria, and coliform bacteria during ensiling. In particular, the local LAB inoculant increased (p < 0.05) concentrations of lactate, acetate and propionate, and decreased concentrations of butyrate and ammonia-N in silages. This study confirmed that local LAB inoculant could improve the silage quality of perennial oat, and this could be a potential winter feed for animals such as yaks on the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau. Full article
Article
The Effects of Feeding a Whole-in-Shell Peanut-Containing Diet on Layer Performance and the Quality and Chemistry of Eggs Produced
Agriculture 2021, 11(11), 1176; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/agriculture11111176 - 22 Nov 2021
Abstract
The abundance of peanut and poultry production within the state of North Carolina and the US Southeast, led us to conduct a layer feeding trial to determine the utilization of whole-in-shell high-oleic peanuts (WPN) and/or unblanched high-oleic peanuts (HOPN) as an alternative feed [...] Read more.
The abundance of peanut and poultry production within the state of North Carolina and the US Southeast, led us to conduct a layer feeding trial to determine the utilization of whole-in-shell high-oleic peanuts (WPN) and/or unblanched high-oleic peanuts (HOPN) as an alternative feed ingredient for poultry. To meet this objective, we randomly assigned 576 shaver hens to 4 dietary treatments (4 rep/trt). The dietary treatments consisted of a conventional control diet (C1), a diet containing 4% WPN, an 8% HOPN diet, and a control diet containing soy protein isolate (C2). Feed and water were provided for 6 weeks ad libitum. Pen body weights (BW) were recorded at week 0 and week 6 (wk6), and feed weights were recorded bi-weekly. Shell eggs were collected daily and enumerated. Bi-weekly 120 eggs/treatment were collected for quality assessment and egg weight (EW), while 16 eggs/treatment were collected for chemical analysis. There were no significant differences in BW or EW at week 6. Hens fed the C2 produced more total dozen eggs relative to C1 hens over the feeding trial (p < 0.05). Hens fed the C1 diet consumed less total feed relative to the other treatments with the best feed conversion ratio (p < 0.05). Most eggs produced from each treatment were USDA grade A, large eggs. There were no differences in egg quality, with the exception of yolk color, with significantly higher yolk color scores in eggs produced from the C1 and C2 treatments relative to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Eggs produced from the HOPN treatment had significantly reduced stearic and linoleic fatty acid levels relative to the other treatments (p < 0.05). Eggs produced from hens fed the WPN diet had significantly greater β-carotene content relative to eggs from the other treatment groups (p < 0.05). In summary, this study suggests that WPN and/or HOPN may be a suitable alternative layer feed ingredient and a dietary means to enrich the eggs produced while not adversely affecting hen performance. Full article
Article
Effects of Supplementation with a Quebracho Tannin Product as an Alternative to Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Diarrhea, and Overall Health in Early-Weaned Piglets
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3316; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11113316 - 19 Nov 2021
Abstract
This study assessed the feasibility of using a vegetable extract, MGM-P (quebracho tannin product), as an alternative to antibiotics for weaned piglets; it investigated MGM-P effects on growth performance, diarrhea, and overall health in early-weaned piglets. In total, 24 piglets were allocated to [...] Read more.
This study assessed the feasibility of using a vegetable extract, MGM-P (quebracho tannin product), as an alternative to antibiotics for weaned piglets; it investigated MGM-P effects on growth performance, diarrhea, and overall health in early-weaned piglets. In total, 24 piglets were allocated to three treatment groups fed basal diets supplemented with 0, 0.2%, or 0.3% MGM-P for 20 days. The addition of 0.3% MGM-P to the diet of early-weaned piglets improved diarrhea incidence, hematological parameters, and intestinal mucosa structure. Furthermore, the addition of 0.2% or 0.3% MGM-P to the diet of early-weaned piglets did not affect their overall health. Importantly, MGM-P had no effects on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), or feed conversion ratio (FCR). Gut morphology analysis showed that treatment with 0.3% MGM-P enhanced the jejunal villus height (p < 0.05) while reducing the ileal crypt depth (p < 0.05) and colon mucosal thickness (p < 0.05). Collectively, the findings suggested that the use of MGM-P as an alternative to dietary antibiotics could improve diarrhea incidence in early-weaned piglets without negative effects on growth performance or overall health. Full article
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Article
Structural and Emulsifying Properties of Soybean Protein Isolate–Sodium Alginate Conjugates under High Hydrostatic Pressure
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10112829 - 17 Nov 2021
Abstract
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) is a kind of plant derived protein with high nutritional value, but it is underutilized due to its structural limitations and poor functionalities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on SPI and [...] Read more.
Soybean protein isolate (SPI) is a kind of plant derived protein with high nutritional value, but it is underutilized due to its structural limitations and poor functionalities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on SPI and sodium alginate (SA) conjugates prepared through the Maillard reaction. The physicochemical properties of the conjugate synthesized under 200 MPa at 60 °C for 24 h (SPI–SA–200) were compared with those of the conjugate synthesized under atmospheric pressure (SPI–SA–0.1), SPI-SA mixture, and SPI. The HHP (200 MPa) significantly hindered the Maillard reaction. This effect was confirmed by performing SDS-PAGE. The alterations in the secondary structures, such as α-helices, were analyzed using circular dichroism spectroscopy and the fluorescence intensity was determined. Emulsifying activity and stability indices of SPI-SA-200 increased by 33.56% and 31.96% respectively in comparison with the SPI–SA–0.1 conjugate. Furthermore, reduced particle sizes (356.18 nm), enhanced zeta potential (‒40.95 mV), and homogeneous droplet sizes were observed for the SPI-SA-200 emulsion. The present study details a practical method to prepare desirable emulsifiers for food processing by controlling the Maillard reaction and improving the functionality of SPI. Full article
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Article
Carcass Traits, Meat Quality, and Volatile Compounds of Lamb Meat from Different Restricted Grazing Time and Indoor Supplementary Feeding Systems
Foods 2021, 10(11), 2822; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/foods10112822 - 16 Nov 2021
Abstract
This study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits, meat quality, and volatile compounds of growing lambs under different restricted grazing time and indoor supplementary feeding systems. Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (with similar body weight) were divided into five groups randomly according [...] Read more.
This study was conducted to investigate the carcass traits, meat quality, and volatile compounds of growing lambs under different restricted grazing time and indoor supplementary feeding systems. Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (with similar body weight) were divided into five groups randomly according to grazing time 12 h/d (G12), 8 h/d(G8), 4 h/d(G4), 2 h/d (G2), and 0 h (G0, indoor supplementary feeding). Animals were slaughtered at the end of the experiment, and the longissimus thoracis (LT) samples were collected for further analysis. The results indicated that indoor supplementary feeding improved the percentages of carcass fat and non-carcass fat of pre-slaughter weight (PSW) and decreased the cooking loss of lamb meat. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d enhanced PSW, carcass, and meat percentages of PSW. Lambs grazing for 2 h/d with supplement and indoor supplementary feeding lambs had a higher level of intramuscular fat and lightness (L*) value and lower cooking loss in the LT muscle, but higher yellowness (b*) and fat content were found in indoor supplementary feeding lambs. More categories of volatile compounds were identified in meat from grazing lambs than from indoor supplementary feeding lambs, but lower content of aldehydes and total volatile flavor compounds was detected in grazing lambs. Overall, the results demonstrated that the feeding system is a main factor that affects lamb meat quality, and proper grazing time can improve the quantity and quality of lamb meat and provide meat with different flavors to the consumers. Full article
Article
Understanding the Role of Prevotella Genus in the Digestion of Lignocellulose and Other Substrates in Vietnamese Native Goats’ Rumen by Metagenomic Deep Sequencing
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3257; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11113257 - 14 Nov 2021
Abstract
Bacteria in rumen play pivotal roles in the digestion of nutrients to support energy for the host. In this study, metagenomic deep sequencing of bacterial metagenome extracted from the goats’ rumen generated 48.66 GB of data with 3,411,867 contigs and 5,367,270 genes. The [...] Read more.
Bacteria in rumen play pivotal roles in the digestion of nutrients to support energy for the host. In this study, metagenomic deep sequencing of bacterial metagenome extracted from the goats’ rumen generated 48.66 GB of data with 3,411,867 contigs and 5,367,270 genes. The genes were mainly functionally annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Carbohydrate-Active enZYmes (CAZy), and HMMER database, and taxonomically classified by MEGAN. As a result, 65,554 genes encoding for 30 enzymes/proteins related to lignocellulose conversion were exploited, in which nine enzymes were seen for the first time in goat rumen. Prevotella was the most abundant genus, contributing 30% hemicellulases and 36% enzymes/proteins for lignocellulose pretreatment, and supporting 98.8% of feruloyl esterases and 71.7% acetylxylan esterases. In addition, 18 of the 22 most lignocellulose digesting- potential contigs belonged to Prevotella. Besides, Prevotella possessed many genes coding for amylolytic enzymes. One gene encoding for endoxylanase was successfully expressed in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme had high Vmax, was tolerant to some salts and detergents, worked better at pH 5.5–6.5, temperature 40–50 °C, and was capable to be used in practices. Based on these findings, we confirm that Prevotella plays a pivotal role for hemicellulose digestion and significantly participates in starch, cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin digestion in the goat rumen. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Ruminal Degradability, Indigestible Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Total-Tract Digestibility of Three Main Crop Straws with Alfalfa Hay and Corn Silage
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3218; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11113218 - 11 Nov 2021
Abstract
Three main crop straws including corn straw (Zea mays, CS), rice straw (Oryza sativa, RS), and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, WS), and two forages including alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, AH) and corn silage (Zea [...] Read more.
Three main crop straws including corn straw (Zea mays, CS), rice straw (Oryza sativa, RS), and wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, WS), and two forages including alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa, AH) and corn silage (Zea mays, CSil) were analyzed in order to compare their ruminal degradability, indigestible neutral detergent fiber (iNDF), intestinal digestibility (ID), and their total-tract digestibility (TTD) of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF) using both an in situ nylon bag technique and a mobile nylon bag technique. The forage samples were incubated in the rumen for 6, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 288 h, respectively, to determine their ruminal degradability. Prior to intestinal incubation, forage samples were incubated in the rumen for 12 h and 24 h to determine the ruminal degradable content of CP, NDF, and ADF, respectively, and for 288 h to determine their iNDF288 content. Residues from the ruminal undegradable fractions (12 h for CP, 24 h for NDF and ADF) were subsequently inserted into the duodenum through a cannula to determine their intestinal digestible content. Here, the TTD of CP, NDF, and ADF were determined as the ruminal degradable content + intestinal digestible content. The results showed that AH had the highest iNDF2.4 (calculated as acid detergent lignin content × 2.4) and iNDF288 values (379.42 and 473.40 g/kg of NDF), while CS and CSil had the lowest iNDF2.4 values (177.44 and 179.43 g/kg of NDF). The ruminal degradability of CP, NDF, and ADF for CS, RS, and WS were lower than those of AH and Csil during the first 48 h of incubation. The potential degradation fraction of CP, NDF, and ADF for CSil was the highest; CS, RS, and WS were intermediate; and AH was the lowest (p < 0.05). CS, RS, and WS had a lower intestinal digestibility with respect to their rumen undegradable content of NDF (p < 0.05), and lower TTD of CP, NDF, and ADF (p < 0.05) compared to AH and CSil. General regression equations with satisfactory accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.828) were derived to predict iNDF288 and TTD based on their chemical compositions and the ruminal degradation kinetics of different forages. Incorporating this information into rations could improve our ability to optimize main crop straws utilization and milk production. Full article
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Article
Effects of High-Forage Diets Containing Raw Flaxseeds or Soybean on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation, Gas Emission, and Microbial Profile
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2304; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/microorganisms9112304 - 05 Nov 2021
Abstract
Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the energy economy of ruminants. However, its interactions of fat, rumen fermentation, gas emission, and microorganisms are not yet clear. This study evaluated the effect of adding raw oilseeds to high-forage diets on in vitro ruminal [...] Read more.
Lipid metabolism plays an important role in the energy economy of ruminants. However, its interactions of fat, rumen fermentation, gas emission, and microorganisms are not yet clear. This study evaluated the effect of adding raw oilseeds to high-forage diets on in vitro ruminal fermentation, gas composition, and microbial profile. Three isoenergetic and isoproteic experimental diets were designed and used as fermentation substrate: control treatment (CON group) was the basal diet lacking oilseeds, the other two treatments were the basal diet supplemented by 100 g/kg dry matter (DM) raw whole soybean (S group) and 50 g/kg DM raw flaxseed (F group), respectively. Data showed that the acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentration of culture fluids in the S group were lower (p < 0.05) than in the F group. There was a tendency to a higher level (p = 0.094) of propionate concentration in the F group compared with the other two groups. The gas production in the F group was higher (p < 0.05) than in the control group. There was a lower abundance of Sutterella (p < 0.05) and a greater abundance of Butyrivibrio (p < 0.05) in both of the two oilseed treatments. Methanobrevibacter (p = 0.078) in the F group was the lowest. Our results suggested that CH4 emission could be inhibited with flaxseed supplementation by propionate production metabolism, biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acid (FA), and toxicity to Methanobrevibacter, while regarding soybean seed supplementation, the emission of CH4 was more likely to be reduced through biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA modulated by Butyrivibrio. Full article
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Article
Isolation and Identification of a Rumen Lactobacillus Bacteria and Its Degradation Potential of Gossypol in Cottonseed Meal during Solid-State Fermentation
Microorganisms 2021, 9(11), 2200; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9112200 - 21 Oct 2021
Abstract
Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an important protein feed source for dairy cows. Its inclusion in ruminant diets is limited due to the presence of the highly toxic gossypol though rumen microorganisms are believed to be capable of gossypol degrading and transforming. The objective [...] Read more.
Cottonseed meal (CSM) is an important protein feed source for dairy cows. Its inclusion in ruminant diets is limited due to the presence of the highly toxic gossypol though rumen microorganisms are believed to be capable of gossypol degrading and transforming. The objective of the present study was to isolate the gossypol-degrading bacteria from the rumen contents and to assess its potential for gossypol degradation in vitro. A strain named Lactobacillus agilis WWK129 was anaerobically isolated from dairy cows after mixed rumen microorganisms were grown on a substrate with gossypol as the sole carbon source. Furthermore, the strain was applied at 5% inoculum concentration in vitro to continuously ferment CSM at 39 °C for five days, and it presented gossypol degradability as high as 83%. Meanwhile, the CSM contents of crude protein, essential amino acids increased significantly along with the increase of lactic acid yield (p < 0.01). Compared with the original CSM, the fermented CSM contents of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was remarkably decreased after the anaerobic fermentation (p < 0.01). In brief, the Lactobacillus strain isolated from the rumen is not only of great importance for gossypol biodegradation of CSM, but it could also be used to further explore the role of rumen microorganisms in gossypol degradation by the ruminants. Full article
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Article
Supplementation of Mixed Organic Acids Improves Growth Performance, Meat Quality, Gut Morphology and Volatile Fatty Acids of Broiler Chicken
Animals 2021, 11(11), 3020; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ani11113020 - 20 Oct 2021
Abstract
Background: Organic acid as a green feed additive is increasingly favoured by enterprises and scholars, but little emphasis has been placed on the effect of organic acids on broiler meat quality. Methods: A total of 192 male chicks (one-day-old, weighted 48.40 [...] Read more.
Background: Organic acid as a green feed additive is increasingly favoured by enterprises and scholars, but little emphasis has been placed on the effect of organic acids on broiler meat quality. Methods: A total of 192 male chicks (one-day-old, weighted 48.40 ± 0.64 g) were selected to investigate the effect of mixed organic acids (MOA) on growth performance, meat quality as well as fatty acids profile. Chicks were randomly allocated to three treatments with eight replicates and eight chicks per replicate, including a corn–soybean basal diet with 0 (CON), 3000 mg/kg (low MOA; LMOA), and 6000 mg/kg (high MOA; HMOA) MOA. The experiment was divided into starter (d 1–d 21) and grower (d 22–d 42) phases. Results: Broilers supplemented with LMOA and HMOA enhanced (p < 0.05) the final body weight and average daily gain in the grower and overall phases. An improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio in the grower and overall phases was observed in broilers supplemented with LMOA. The breast and thigh muscles pH24h were higher (p < 0.05) in broilers fed with HMOA and the redness in thigh meat was also improved (p < 0.05). Additionally, supplementing LMOA increased (p < 0.05) the saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in breast meat. A positive effect occurred (p < 0.05) on jejunal villus height and ileal crypt depth in 21 d broilers supplemented with HMOA. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that dietary supplementation of MOA could improve the growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acids profile, as well as intestinal morphology. Furthermore, diets supplemented with mixed organic acids at 3000 mg/kg may be more desirable, considering the overall experimental results in broilers. Full article
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