Topic Editors

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland
Dr. Anna Rozensztrauch
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Wroclaw Medical University, 50-367 Wrocław, Poland

Children’s Diseases, Family Management, and Quality of Life

Abstract submission deadline
19 September 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
19 December 2024
Viewed by
47765

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Though awareness of the impact of a child’s disease on family quality of life (QoL) has recently been increasing, there is a need to measure this impact in the clinical setting to inform those providing support to the family. A child’s chronic health condition or disability can have an impact on the quality of life of the whole family. In the case of chronic diseases, such as genetic rare diseases, there is a reduction in quality of life, along with disability, depending on the type of disease. Potential topics for this Special Issue include all issues related to child diseases, family management, and quality of life, especially with rare and chronic diseases.

Prof. Dr. Robert Śmigiel
Dr. Anna Rozensztrauch
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • child
  • family
  • caregivers
  • rare disease
  • quality of life
  • genetics
  • rehabilitation
  • diagnosis
  • surgery
  • child disease

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Cancers
cancers
5.2 8.0 2009 17.9 Days CHF 2900 Submit
Children
children
2.4 2.7 2014 13.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Diseases
diseases
3.7 0.8 2013 18.8 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 3.5 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Journal of Clinical Medicine
jcm
3.9 5.7 2012 17.9 Days CHF 2600 Submit

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Published Papers (37 papers)

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16 pages, 1558 KiB  
Article
Cardiometabolic Risk Assessment in a Cohort of Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with Hyperinsulinemia
by Giorgio Sodero, Donato Rigante, Lucia Celeste Pane, Linda Sessa, Ludovica Quarta, Marcello Candelli and Clelia Cipolla
Diseases 2024, 12(6), 119; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases12060119 - 4 Jun 2024
Viewed by 330
Abstract
Background: Individuals with hyperinsulinemia may initially not meet any diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, though displaying a higher risk of cardiovascular complications combined with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Aim: The main objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various [...] Read more.
Background: Individuals with hyperinsulinemia may initially not meet any diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, though displaying a higher risk of cardiovascular complications combined with obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Aim: The main objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of various cardiovascular risk indices in hyperinsulinemic children and adolescents; a secondary objective was to estimate the optimal cut-offs of these indices. Patients and methods: This retrospective single-center study was conducted on 139 patients aged 12.1 ± 2.9 years, managed for hyperinsulinism. Results: We found statistically significant differences in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), triglyceride glucose index (TyG), TyG-body mass index, visceral adiposity index, lipid accumulation product index, fatty liver index, and hepatic steatosis index. At the linear logistic regression assessment, we found that insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), HOMA-IR, and ALT/AST ratio were independently associated with confirmed hyperinsulinism. At the multivariate analysis, IGF-1 levels over 203 ng/mL and HOMA-IR higher than 6.2 were respectively associated with a 9- and 18-times higher odds ratio for hyperinsulinism. The other investigated parameters were not significantly related to hyperinsulinism, and could not predict either the presence of hyperinsulinemia or a subsequent cardiovascular risk in our patients. Conclusion: Commonly used indices of cardiovascular risk in adults cannot be considered accurate in confirming hyperinsulinism in children, with the exception of HOMA-IR. Further studies are needed to verify the usefulness of specific cardiovascular risk indices in hyperinsulinemic children and adolescents. Full article
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17 pages, 2092 KiB  
Article
Fertility-Preserving Treatments and Patient- and Parental Satisfaction on Fertility Counseling in a Cohort of Newly Diagnosed Boys and Girls with Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma
by Katja C. E. Drechsel, Irene M. IJgosse, Sofie Slaats, Lisanne Raasen, Francis S. Stoutjesdijk, Eline van Dulmen-den Broeder, W. Hamish Wallace, Auke Beishuizen, Dieter Körholz, Christine Mauz-Körholz, Michaela Cepelova, Anne Uyttebroeck, Leila Ronceray, Gertjan J. L. Kaspers, Simone L. Broer and Margreet A. Veening
Cancers 2024, 16(11), 2109; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cancers16112109 - 31 May 2024
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of fertility-preserving (FP) treatments and fertility counseling that was offered in a cohort of newly diagnosed children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Methods: In this observational study, boys and girls with cHL [...] Read more.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the use of fertility-preserving (FP) treatments and fertility counseling that was offered in a cohort of newly diagnosed children with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). Methods: In this observational study, boys and girls with cHL aged ≤ 18 years with scheduled treatment according to the EuroNet-PHL-C2 protocol were recruited from 18 sites (5 countries), between January 2017 and September 2021. In 2023, a subset of Dutch participants (aged ≥ 12 years at time of diagnosis) and parents/guardians were surveyed regarding fertility counseling. Results: A total of 101 boys and 104 girls were included. Most post-pubertal boys opted for semen cryopreservation pre-treatment (85% of expected). Invasive FP treatments were occasionally chosen for patients at a relatively low risk of fertility based on scheduled alkylating agent exposure (4/5 testicular biopsy, 4/4 oocyte, and 11/11 ovarian tissue cryopreservation). A total of 17 post-menarchal girls (20%) received GnRH-analogue co-treatment. Furthermore, 33/84 parents and 26/63 patients responded to the questionnaire. Most reported receiving fertility counseling (97%/89%). Statements regarding the timing and content of counseling were generally positive. Parents and patients considered fertility counseling important (94%/87% (strongly agreed) and most expressed concerns about (their child’s) fertility (at diagnosis 69%/46%, at present: 59%/42%). Conclusion: Systematic fertility counseling is crucial for all pediatric cHL patients and their families. FP treatment should be considered depending on the anticipated risk and patient factors. We encourage the development of a decision aid for FP in pediatric oncology. Full article
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16 pages, 1869 KiB  
Article
Quality of Life of Children with Short Bowel Syndrome from Patients’ and Parents’ Points of View
by Charlotte Kießling, Lucas M. Wessel, Judith Felcht, Cornelia I. Hagl, Michael Boettcher and Rasul Khasanov
Children 2024, 11(5), 536; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children11050536 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Despite limited research, existing studies using generic quality of life (QOL) tools indicate decreased physical health and compromised emotional functioning in children with IF. This study investigates QOL in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and its determinants. The study included 57 pediatric [...] Read more.
Despite limited research, existing studies using generic quality of life (QOL) tools indicate decreased physical health and compromised emotional functioning in children with IF. This study investigates QOL in children with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and its determinants. The study included 57 pediatric patients with SBS treated at Mannheim’s University Hospital between 1998 and 2014. To evaluate QOL, the KINDL questionnaire was used. Three age-specific questionnaire variants were employed, and parental proxy reports were collected. Most patients underwent intestinal lengthening procedures, with varying primary diagnoses. A comparison with healthy children from the patient’s perspective revealed no difference but from the parent’s perspective showed lower QOL in SBS patients, especially regarding physical and mental well-being. QOL varied with age, with 7–10-year-olds reporting the lowest scores. Several factors, including independence from parenteral nutrition and the presence of a complete colon, positively influenced QOL. The independence of parenteral nutrition and the presence of a complete colon positively influenced QOL. The Bianchi technique for intestinal lengthening has also shown promise but needs further research. The observation sample in this study is too small to generalize about the whole population of SBS patients. However, this study shows that many health and treatment factors affect QOL, and a large multicenter study is necessary. Our findings underline the importance of appropriate psychological support for children with SBS and their families. Full article
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13 pages, 241 KiB  
Article
From Genotype to Phenotype of Polish Patients with Pitt–Hopkins Syndrome concerning the Quality of Life and Family Functioning
by Marlena Telenga, Anna Rozensztrauch, Kaja Giżewska-Kacprzak and Robert Śmigiel
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(9), 2605; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm13092605 - 29 Apr 2024
Viewed by 512
Abstract
Background: Pitt–Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder affecting psychomotor, social, and intellectual development, caused by a mutation in the TCF4 gene. The study aims to gather the phenotype and genotype data of PTHS patients from Poland and to assess the [...] Read more.
Background: Pitt–Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is a rare genetic disorder affecting psychomotor, social, and intellectual development, caused by a mutation in the TCF4 gene. The study aims to gather the phenotype and genotype data of PTHS patients from Poland and to assess the quality of life (QoL) and the impact of the disorders on the family. Methods: Eight families with PTHS participated in the study. To obtain data, the following standardized questionnaires were used: Questionnaire on Clinical Problems (QCP), the PedsQL™ Family Impact Module, and the QL-Disability Questionnaire. Additionally, a retrospective analysis of clinical examination, genetic consult, medical history, and genotype of each individual was performed. Results: All of the examined children exhibited a mutation in the TCF4 gene and typical features of PTHS. The most prevalent clinical symptoms in the study group included typical PTHS appearance, intellectual disability (n = 5; as the rest of the patients were too young to be assessed), abnormal speech development (n = 8), reduced pain response (n = 7), constipation (n = 7), drooling (n = 7), cold extremities (n = 7), and disturbances in sensory integration processes (n = 7). The QL-Disability Questionnaire revealed a total QoL score of 67.7/100 for children with PTHS, while the QoL for their families in the PedsQL Family Impact Module was 53.82/100. The highest-rated domain was cognitive functioning (Median (Me) = 67.50; Standard Deviation (SD) = 21.95), while the lowest was daily activities (Me = 25.00; SD = 29.86). Conclusions: The study allowed the collection of data on the phenotype and genotype of children with PTHS living in Poland. Overall, our study showed that the QoL of children with PTHS is impaired. Full article
12 pages, 846 KiB  
Article
Ocular Tics and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS)
by Stefano Dore, Daniele Satta, Angelo Zinellu, Giacomo Boscia, Arturo Carta, Mario Fruschelli, Rita Serra and Antonio Pinna
Diseases 2024, 12(5), 83; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases12050083 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 728
Abstract
Little is known about ocular tics in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). In this retrospective study, we examined the clinical records of children with motor tics referred to the Ophthalmology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Sassari, Italy, in 2010–2019. The [...] Read more.
Little is known about ocular tics in Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS). In this retrospective study, we examined the clinical records of children with motor tics referred to the Ophthalmology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Sassari, Italy, in 2010–2019. The presence of ocular tics was investigated. Data about antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNase B antibody titers, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and antibiotic use were recorded. Forty children (thirty-four boys and six girls; mean age: 7.65 ± 2.5 years) with motor tics were identified; thirty-three (82.5%) showed ocular tics. Children with ocular tics had significantly higher titers of anti-DNase B antibodies (p = 0.04) and CRP (p = 0.016) than those with extraocular tics. A diagnosis of PANDAS was made in 24 (60%) children. PANDAS children with oculomotor tics had significantly higher titers of anti-DNase B antibodies (p = 0.05) than those with extraocular tics. Oral antibiotics were given to 25/33 (76%) children with ocular tics and 21/24 (87.5%) with PANDAS. All treated patients showed marked improvement/complete resolution of symptoms. Results suggest that higher titers of anti-DNase B antibodies may be implicated in the pathogenesis of ocular tics in PANDAS. Oral antibiotics may be beneficial in improving ocular tics. Further research is necessary to confirm our findings. Full article
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12 pages, 229 KiB  
Article
When the Relationship Is at Stake: Parents’ Perception of the Relationship with a Child with Problematic Gaming and Their Perceived Need for Support
by Marie Werner, Sabina Kapetanovic, Maiken Nielsen, Sevtap Gurdal, Mitchell J. Andersson, Alexandru Panican and Emma Claesdotter-Knutsson
Healthcare 2024, 12(8), 851; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12080851 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 884
Abstract
Intrapersonal parental factors play a significant role in the development of problematic gaming in children. However, few studies have explored parental perspectives on their relationship with a child engaged in problematic gaming, as well as the need for support parents perceive in relation [...] Read more.
Intrapersonal parental factors play a significant role in the development of problematic gaming in children. However, few studies have explored parental perspectives on their relationship with a child engaged in problematic gaming, as well as the need for support parents perceive in relation to the child’s gaming. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 12 parents (83.3% women) of 11 children (81.8% boys, Mage = 15 ± 2) to examine how parents of children with problematic gaming behavior perceive the parent–child relationship and their need for additional support. We analyzed qualitative accounts using thematic analysis to identify themes and subthemes while drawing on the theoretical frameworks of Aaron Antonovsky’s theory of sense of coherence (SOC) and Jürgen Habermas’ theory of logic. Participants described difficulties regarding all three components of SOC (meaningfulness, comprehensibility, and manageability) in relation to their child’s gaming, with the most significant challenge being manageability. Parents primarily sought assistance from institutions and organizations, such as mental health services, to enhance manageability. The findings emphasize parents’ need for relational and practical support tailored to their unique context, as well as their wish to be more involved in the treatment of their children. Full article
13 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Aggressiveness in Italian Children with ADHD: MAOA Gene Polymorphism Involvement
by Ludovico Neri, Beatrice Marziani, Pierluigi Sebastiani, Tiziana Del Beato, Alessia Colanardi, Maria Pia Legge and Anna Aureli
Diseases 2024, 12(4), 70; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases12040070 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1293
Abstract
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that children and adults can develop. A complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors may underlie interindividual variability in ADHD and potentially related aggressive behavior. Using high-resolution molecular biology techniques, we investigated the impact of some MAOA and [...] Read more.
ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that children and adults can develop. A complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors may underlie interindividual variability in ADHD and potentially related aggressive behavior. Using high-resolution molecular biology techniques, we investigated the impact of some MAOA and SLC6A4 variations on ADHD and aggressive behavior in a group of 80 Italian children with ADHD and in 80 healthy controls. We found that homozygous genotypes of MAOA rs6323 and rs1137070 were associated with an increased risk of ADHD (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively), whereas the heterozygous genotypes (GT of rs6323 and CT of rs1137030) (p = 0.0002 and p = 0.0006) were strongly linked to a lower risk of developing this disorder. In patients with aggressive behavior, we highlighted only a weak negative association of both MAOA polymorphisms (heterozygous genotypes) with aggressiveness, suggesting that these genotypes may be protective towards specific changes in behavior (p = 0.05). Interestingly, an increase in the GG genotype of rs6323 (p = 0.01) and a decrease in GT genotype (p = 0.0005) was also found in patients without aggressive behavior compared to controls. Regarding 5HTT gene genotyping, no allele and genotype differences have been detected among patients and controls. Our work shows that defining a genetic profile of ADHD may help in the early detection of patients who are more vulnerable to ADHD and/or antisocial and aggressive behavior and to design precision-targeted therapies. Full article
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21 pages, 1166 KiB  
Article
The Emotional Impact of a Cancer Diagnosis: A Qualitative Study of Adolescent and Young Adult Experience
by Luke Hughes, Rachel M. Taylor, Angharad E. Beckett, Oana C. Lindner, Adam Martin, Joanne McCulloch, Sue Morgan, Louise Soanes, Rizwana Uddin and Dan P. Stark
Cancers 2024, 16(7), 1332; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/cancers16071332 - 29 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1574
Abstract
The biographical disruption that occurs in adolescents and young adults following a cancer diagnosis can affect various important psychosocial domains including relationships with family and friends, sexual development, vocational and educational trajectories, and physical and emotional wellbeing. While there is evidence of the [...] Read more.
The biographical disruption that occurs in adolescents and young adults following a cancer diagnosis can affect various important psychosocial domains including relationships with family and friends, sexual development, vocational and educational trajectories, and physical and emotional wellbeing. While there is evidence of the physical impact of cancer during this period, less is known about the impact on emotional wellbeing and especially on the barriers for young people accessing help and support. We aimed to obtain a more in-depth understanding of young people’s experiences of their diagnosis, treatment, psychological impact, and range of resources they could or wanted to access for their mental health. We conducted an in-depth qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with 43 young people who had developed cancer aged 16 to 39 years and were either within 6 months of diagnosis or 3–5 years after treatment had ended. Framework analysis identified three themes: the emotional impact of cancer (expressed through anxiety, anger, and fear of recurrence); personal barriers to support through avoidance; and support to improve mental health through mental health services or adolescent and young adult treatment teams. We showed the barriers young people have to access care, particularly participant avoidance of support. Interrupting this process to better support young people and provide them with flexible, adaptable, consistent, long-term psychological support has the potential to improve their quality of life and wellbeing. Full article
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30 pages, 4228 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effectiveness of Nonpharmacological Behavioural Interventions in Managing Dental Fear and Anxiety among Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Sarrah S. F. S. Almarzouq, Helene Chua, Cynthia K. Y. Yiu and Phoebe P. Y. Lam
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 537; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12050537 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1375
Abstract
Background: Non-pharmacological behavioural interventions (NPBIs) have been employed by dentists to alleviate dental fear and anxiety (DFA) among preschool and school children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of different NPBIs in reducing DFA among children [...] Read more.
Background: Non-pharmacological behavioural interventions (NPBIs) have been employed by dentists to alleviate dental fear and anxiety (DFA) among preschool and school children. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the effectiveness of different NPBIs in reducing DFA among children aged below 12. Method: A comprehensive search was conducted using four electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials that assess the effectiveness of NPBIs among preschool and school children. Two reviewers independently screened and selected the relevant studies, evaluated the risk of bias, and extracted relevant data for qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Result: A total of 66 articles were included in the study. Except during more invasive dental procedures, the use of distraction techniques was found to result in significantly lower self-rated anxiety, better cooperation, and lower pulse rate compared to the tell–show–do method. However, inconsistent results were reported regarding the efficacy of virtual reality, modelling, visual pedagogies, tell–show–do and other NPBIs in reducing DFA among children. Conclusions: The studies exhibited substantial heterogeneity due to varying age groups, methods of implementing NPBIs, dental treatments performed, and measurement scales employed in the evaluation of DFA. Full article
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14 pages, 1392 KiB  
Article
Clinical Course, Laboratory Findings, and Prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Infants up to 90 Days of Age: A Single-Center Experience and a Proposal for a Management Pathway
by Tommaso Bellini, Giacomo Brisca, Ioannis Orfanos, Marcello Mariani, Federico Pezzotta, Benedetta Giordano, Andrea Pastorino, Silvia Misley, Clelia Formigoni, Elena Fueri, Marta Ferretti, Marta Marin, Martina Finetti, Emanuela Piccotti, Elio Castagnola and Andrea Moscatelli
Healthcare 2024, 12(5), 528; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12050528 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 809
Abstract
Aim: To provide a comprehensive description of the clinical features, biochemical characteristics, and outcomes of infants up to 90 days old with COVID-19. Moreover, to assess the severity of the disease and propose an effective management pathway. Methods: Retrospective single-center study spanning three [...] Read more.
Aim: To provide a comprehensive description of the clinical features, biochemical characteristics, and outcomes of infants up to 90 days old with COVID-19. Moreover, to assess the severity of the disease and propose an effective management pathway. Methods: Retrospective single-center study spanning three years. Patient data includes age, sex, symptoms, comorbidities, blood and urine test results, cultures, admission, length of stay, therapies, intensive care unit admission, and mortality. Results: A total of 274 patients were enrolled in the study, comprising 55% males. Among them, 60 patients (22%) were under the age of 29 days, while 214 (78%) fell within the 29 to 90 days age range. The overall incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 0.28 per 10,000 Pediatric Emergency Department admissions. Blood inflammatory markers showed no significant abnormalities, and there were no recorded instances of positive blood cultures. Less than 1% of infants showed urinary tract infections with positive urine cultures, and 1.5% of patients had a concurrent RSV infection. Hospitalization rates were 83% for neonates and 67% for infants, with a median length of stay (LOS) of 48 h for both age groups. None of the patients required admission to the Pediatric or Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and only one required High Flow Nasal Cannula (HFNC). No secondary serious bacterial infections were observed, and all hospitalized patients were discharged without short-term sequelae. No deaths were reported. Discussion and Conclusions: Infants with COVID-19 generally exhibit milder or asymptomatic forms of the disease, making home management a viable option in most cases. Blood tests, indicative of a mild inflammatory response, are recommended primarily for children showing symptoms of illness. Hospitalization precautions for infants without apparent illness or comorbidities are deemed unnecessary. Given the evolving nature of experiences with COVID-19 in infants, maintaining a high level of clinical suspicion remains imperative. Full article
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10 pages, 388 KiB  
Article
Serial Dual Mediating Effects of Parenting Stress on Life Satisfaction among Parents of School-Aged Children with Chronic Conditions
by Jeong-Won Han, Boeun Yang and Hanna Lee
Healthcare 2024, 12(4), 461; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12040461 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 930
Abstract
This study examines the serial dual mediating effects of marital conflict and self-esteem on the relationship between parenting stress and life satisfaction in parents of school-aged children with chronic conditions. This study aims to present foundational data for developing nursing interventions for parents [...] Read more.
This study examines the serial dual mediating effects of marital conflict and self-esteem on the relationship between parenting stress and life satisfaction in parents of school-aged children with chronic conditions. This study aims to present foundational data for developing nursing interventions for parents caring for children with chronic illnesses. Of the 2150 parents who participated in the 13th Panel Study on Korean Children (PSKC), 271 raising a child with a chronic illness were enrolled in the study. The serial dual mediating effect was analyzed using PROCESS macro Model 6. The serial dual mediating effects of parenting stress, marital conflict, and self-esteem on parents’ life satisfaction were analyzed. Marital conflict and self-esteem had significant serial multiple mediating effects on the relationship between stress and life satisfaction in fathers (B = −0.11, bootstrap 95% CI = −0.16–−0.06) and mothers (B = −0.06, bootstrap 95% CI = −0.09–−0.03). Our results suggest that marital conflict increases with increasing parenting stress and that increased marital conflict sequentially reduces self-esteem, ultimately diminishing life satisfaction in parents raising a child with a chronic condition. Thus, relevant nursing interventions and social support are essential to boost the life satisfaction of parents raising children with chronic conditions. Full article
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13 pages, 1084 KiB  
Article
Parental Satisfaction with the Quality of Care in an Early Intervention Service for Children with Visual Impairment: A Retrospective Longitudinal Study
by Tiziana Battistin, Elena Mercuriali, Carlotta Borghini, Maria Eleonora Reffo and Agnese Suppiej
Children 2024, 11(2), 230; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children11020230 - 10 Feb 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1037
Abstract
The fundamental role of vision during development and the nurturing role of early intersubjectivity have enabled the Robert Hollman Foundation to develop an early intervention program providing holistic support to visually impaired children and their families, where fostering parent-infant interactions is at the [...] Read more.
The fundamental role of vision during development and the nurturing role of early intersubjectivity have enabled the Robert Hollman Foundation to develop an early intervention program providing holistic support to visually impaired children and their families, where fostering parent-infant interactions is at the heart of our care. The aim of this study is to understand how parents perceive this approach. It is an eleven-year retrospective study of children following the Robert Hollman Foundation’s early intervention program, in which parents’ (n = 1086) perceptions of quality of care were measured through the administration of a specifically designed 4-point scale questionnaire. Annual longitudinal trends of parents’ perceptions were calculated for every single response. Parents reported a very high satisfaction value in 21/23 questions (Mean > 3.7 out of a maximum score of 4, with the highest scores in human and soft skills of professionals) with a statistically positive trend (p < 0.05), throughout the period considered. Our core approach, based on an individualized nurturing relational support, has been appreciated and confirmed by the high satisfaction reported in the questionnaires by parents of children with visual impairment. We therefore hypothesize that parent-infant relationship-based and individualized approaches may help parents achieve better health, well-being, and quality of daily life for their children. Full article
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7 pages, 894 KiB  
Case Report
Profound Hypoglycemia and High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis in a Pediatric Leukemic Patient Receiving 6-Mercaptopurine
by Molly O’Shea, Alexis Kuhn, Ana L. Creo, Mira Kohorst and Asmaa Ferdjallah
Children 2024, 11(2), 160; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children11020160 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1055
Abstract
A 13-year-old male undergoing maintenance chemotherapy with methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), for very high-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), presented with vomiting due to severe hypoglycemia with metabolic acidosis. While his laboratory values were concerning for a critically ill child, the patient was [...] Read more.
A 13-year-old male undergoing maintenance chemotherapy with methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), for very high-risk B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), presented with vomiting due to severe hypoglycemia with metabolic acidosis. While his laboratory values were concerning for a critically ill child, the patient was relatively well appearing. Hypoglycemia is a rare but serious side effect of 6MP with an unexpectedly variable presentation; therefore, a high index of suspicion is needed for its prompt detection and treatment. This patient also had severe metabolic acidosis, likely secondary to hypoglycemia, creating a serious clinical picture despite a well-appearing child. This example of incongruity between laboratory tests and clinical appearance adds nuance to the existing literature. Moreover, although 6MP-associated hypoglycemia is rare, it may be more prevalent than the literature suggests, as symptoms of hypoglycemia—nausea, vomiting, and somnolence—mirror common chemotherapy side effects. 6MP-induced hypoglycemia can be ameliorated with the addition of allopurinol to shunt metabolism in favor of the production of therapeutic metabolites over hepatotoxic metabolites. Additionally, a morning administration of 6MP and frequent snacks may also help to prevent hypoglycemia. Overall, this case adds to the literature of unusual reactions to 6MP including hypoglycemia in an older child without traditional risk factors. Full article
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12 pages, 408 KiB  
Review
Parental Experiences in Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Insights from Quantitative Research
by Samuela Tarantino, Martina Proietti Checchi, Laura Papetti, Gabriele Monte, Michela Ada Noris Ferilli and Massimiliano Valeriani
Children 2024, 11(1), 71; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children11010071 - 8 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1370
Abstract
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and unpredictable inflammatory disease impacting the central nervous system. The disabling nature of this disease is not limited to only physical symptoms. MS, even at a pediatric age, often includes cognitive impairment, fatigue, and psychological issues, affecting [...] Read more.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and unpredictable inflammatory disease impacting the central nervous system. The disabling nature of this disease is not limited to only physical symptoms. MS, even at a pediatric age, often includes cognitive impairment, fatigue, and psychological issues, affecting education and social life, causing emotional distress, and reducing quality of life. Despite the paucity of quantitative data in the existing literature, our review demonstrates that the impact of pediatric MS extends beyond the patients themselves, affecting their parents as well. There is evidence suggesting that having a child with MS may be associated with a reduction in the parental quality of life, even in families of MS patients with low or no disability and without clinical relapses. Moreover, an increased risk of parents’ mental illness has been described, particularly in mothers, leading to a heightened utilization of mental health services. Research data show that inadequate information about MS may impact parents’ anxiety and their sense of competence. Since parents’ involvement has been found to also play a role in their child’s adherence to treatment, special attention should be paid to parental psychological health. Additional research exploring family adaptation to their children’s illness is required. Full article
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13 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Association of Sleep Duration and Weekend Catch-Up Sleep with Suicidal Ideation among Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis
by Dong Wan Kang, Sung Hoon Kim, Yechan Kyung and Hae Jeong Lee
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(24), 7716; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm12247716 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 861
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent allergic disease in children that often causes sleep disturbance and which is associated with diminished quality of life and heightened susceptibility to depression and suicidality. In this study, we investigate the relationship between weekend catch-up sleep (WCUS) [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent allergic disease in children that often causes sleep disturbance and which is associated with diminished quality of life and heightened susceptibility to depression and suicidality. In this study, we investigate the relationship between weekend catch-up sleep (WCUS) and mental health in a sample of 71,434 adolescents with AD and 221,057 without AD using multivariate logistic regression analysis. We hypothesized that adolescents with AD experience shorter total and daytime sleep due to pruritus, with compensatory longer WCUS. We found that the lifetime prevalence of AD was 24.4%, and that adolescents with AD slept less overall, with significantly shorter weekday and weekend sleep durations but longer weekend catch-up sleep (WCUS). Sleep dissatisfaction was markedly higher in the AD group. Interestingly, our results suggest that prolonged WCUS is a protective factor against suicidal ideation in adolescents with AD. The study highlights the importance of addressing sleep patterns in adolescents with AD to enhance mental health. Overall, our findings indicate a need for increased awareness and intervention strategies to ensure sufficient sleep and reduce the risk of suicidal ideation in this population. Full article
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13 pages, 974 KiB  
Article
Changing Trends in School Absenteeism and Identification of Associated Factors in Adolescents with Atopic Dermatitis
by Dong Wan Kang, Sung Hoon Kim, Yechan Kyung and Hae Jeong Lee
Children 2023, 10(12), 1918; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10121918 - 12 Dec 2023
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has a negative influence on school attendance. We aimed to identify factors associated with school absenteeism in adolescents with AD. We used data from the 3rd to 11th annual Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey completed from 2007 to 2015. [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) has a negative influence on school attendance. We aimed to identify factors associated with school absenteeism in adolescents with AD. We used data from the 3rd to 11th annual Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey completed from 2007 to 2015. Survey data were obtained from a stratified, multistage, clustered sample. Participants responded to the question “have you ever been diagnosed with AD?” Factors associated with AD-related school absenteeism (ADSA), which is defined as at least one school absence due to AD, were evaluated. Among the 141,899 subjects, the prevalence of AD increased (17.3% to 24.2%), while that of ADSA decreased (7.3% to 2.6%) from 2007 to 2015. Compared to adolescents without ADSA, those with ADSA were more likely to be male, middle school students, and have negative mental health states, including suicidality. In the multivariate logistic regression model, the association of sleep dissatisfaction and depression with ADSA was high (adjusted odds ratio, 6.12; 95% confidence intervals, 4.61–7.95; and 5.44; 5.23–5.67, respectively). The prevalence of ADSA has decreased despite an increase in the prevalence of AD in Korean adolescents; however, it is important for pediatricians to screen for factors associated with ADSA to improve school attendance in adolescents with AD. Full article
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10 pages, 423 KiB  
Article
Physicians’ Self-Perceived Competence on Breaking Bad News to Parents of Children with Neurodisabilities
by Ophélie Fiorellino and Christopher John Newman
Children 2023, 10(12), 1854; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10121854 - 26 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 909
Abstract
Delivering difficult news to parents of children with neurodisabilities, often involving new diagnoses, prognosis changes, or declines in function or health, presents a complex task. Our aim was to assess physicians’ self-perceived competence in breaking bad news (BBN) within this context. An online [...] Read more.
Delivering difficult news to parents of children with neurodisabilities, often involving new diagnoses, prognosis changes, or declines in function or health, presents a complex task. Our aim was to assess physicians’ self-perceived competence in breaking bad news (BBN) within this context. An online survey was administered to neuropediatricians and developmental and rehabilitation pediatricians in Switzerland. Among 247 invited physicians, 62 (25.1%) responded (age of 51 ± 11 years; M/F ratio of 2:3). They rated their BBN competence at 7.5 ± 1.6 out of 10. Factors significantly associated with self-perceived competence in uni- and multivariate analyses included years of professional experience (≤10 years: 6.2 ± 1.8; >10 years: 8.2 ± 0.8), and region of pregraduate training (Switzerland: 7.3 ± 1.6; European Union: 8.3 ± 0.9). The respondents highlighted the positive roles of professional and personal experience, quality relationships with families, and empathy in BBN. In summary, physicians generally expressed a sense of competence in delivering difficult news to parents of children with neurodisabilities. They underscored the significance of life experiences and certain individual qualities in their effectiveness. These findings provide valuable insights into enhancing professional training and support in this crucial yet underexplored aspect of medical practice. Full article
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18 pages, 330 KiB  
Article
Roles of Parental Psychological Flexibility, Self-Compassion, and Self-Efficacy in Affecting Mental Health and Quality of Life in Parents of Children with Eczema
by Yuen Yu Chong, Joycelyn Yee Man Kwan, Pui Tik Yau, Ho Yu Cheng and Wai Tong Chien
Healthcare 2023, 11(20), 2708; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11202708 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1567
Abstract
Parents of young children with eczema often experience adverse mental health consequences, including depression, anxiety, stress, and a reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), due to the unpredictable nature of flare-ups and exacerbations. This study investigated the roles of psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and [...] Read more.
Parents of young children with eczema often experience adverse mental health consequences, including depression, anxiety, stress, and a reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL), due to the unpredictable nature of flare-ups and exacerbations. This study investigated the roles of psychological flexibility, self-compassion, and self-efficacy in fostering parental mental health outcomes and HRQoL while caring for children diagnosed with eczema. Baseline data from an ongoing clinical trial examining the effects of a family acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-based eczema management program (FACT-EMP) on parent–child dyads affected by eczema (N = 110 dyads, 75.5% mothers; 66.4% boys) were analyzed using adjusted hierarchical regression analyses. The findings indicate that psychological inflexibility was significantly associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, stress, and HRQoL. Self-compassion was significantly linked to all assessed mental health outcomes, whereas self-efficacy showed a significant association only with symptoms of depression. These results underscore the significance of promoting parental psychological flexibility and self-compassion through acceptance and commitment therapy and compassion-based approaches to enhance mental health and quality of life while managing children’s eczema. Full article
15 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Characteristics of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Their Utilization of Services in Saudi Arabia
by Maysoun Nimer Saleh, Ahmad Alharbi, Abdulaziz Albalwi, Salem Alatawi, Maaidah Algamdi, Abdulaziz Alshahrani, Basil Al Bakri and Nihad Almasri
Healthcare 2023, 11(19), 2690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11192690 - 7 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1283
Abstract
The recent emergence of research on cerebral palsy (CP) in developing countries aims to improve knowledge on affected children and the utilization of the available services. This study seeks to describe children with CP in Saudi Arabia and service utilization as per Gross [...] Read more.
The recent emergence of research on cerebral palsy (CP) in developing countries aims to improve knowledge on affected children and the utilization of the available services. This study seeks to describe children with CP in Saudi Arabia and service utilization as per Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels and geographic regions. A cross-sectional survey of 227 children with CP (Mean age 6.3, SD 3.9 years) was conducted. Parents reported on children’s demographics, impairments, and service utilization. Half of the children (n = 113, 49.8%) had ≥3 impairments with speech, visual and learning impairments being the most frequent. The total number of impairments differed significantly by GMFCS, F (4, 218) = 8.87, p < 0.001. Most of the children (n = 86, 83.4%) used 2–5 services. Moreover, 139 (62.3%) did not attend school, 147 (65.9%) did not receive occupational therapy, and only 32 (14.3%) received speech therapy. More children in GMFCS level I did not receive neurologist services. Profiles of children and services were described by GMFCS and by regions. This was the first study to describe children with CP and service utilization in Saudi Arabia. Although many impairments affected the children, there was low utilization of related services. Data on service utilization and on unmet needs support a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and the proper service allocation. Full article
10 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Direct and Indirect Predictors of Burden in Arab-Bedouin and Jewish-Israeli Mothers Caring for a Child with Epilepsy
by Idit Joss, Yaacov G. Bachner, Talia Shorer, Zamir Shorer and Norm O’Rourke
Healthcare 2023, 11(19), 2662; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11192662 - 1 Oct 2023
Viewed by 849
Abstract
Objective: Caring for a child with epilepsy poses various psychological, physical and medical challenges; these can lead to caregiver burden. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of burden with mothers caring for a child with epilepsy. Our analyses included sociodemographic [...] Read more.
Objective: Caring for a child with epilepsy poses various psychological, physical and medical challenges; these can lead to caregiver burden. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of burden with mothers caring for a child with epilepsy. Our analyses included sociodemographic (e.g., ethnicity), mental health (e.g., symptoms of anxiety, depression) and physiological factors (e.g., extent of pharmacotherapy). Methods: A total of 168 mothers caring for a child with epilepsy were recruited while attending the Pediatric Neurology Clinic at Soroka Medical Center, Be’er Sheva, Israel. This cross-sectional sample included 130 Jewish-Israeli and 38 Arab-Bedouin mothers who completed parallel questionnaire batteries that included the Zarit Burden Interview and other scales translated and validated in Hebrew and Arabic. We computed path analyses to identify both direct and indirect predictors of caregiver burden. Results: Burden was directly predicted by emotional exhaustion, symptoms of anxiety and (Bedouin) ethnicity. Indirect effects on burden included illness severity (via emotional exhaustion), ethnicity and emotional exhaustion (both via anxiety). That is, both ethnicity and emotional exhaustion directly and indirectly predicted caregiver burden via greater anxiety. Illness severity indirectly predicted symptoms of depression, anxiety and caregiver burden. We found that 55% of epilepsy care burden was predicted by this path model. Conclusions: Bedouin mothers reported greater illness severity, symptoms of depression, anxiety and caregiver burden. Differences between groups in epilepsy severity suggest that less severe cases in the Bedouin community do not come to clinical attention (e.g., are concealed due to stigma). These findings underscore the need for health promotion strategies and interventions for caregivers tailored to account for ethnic and cultural differences. Full article
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11 pages, 916 KiB  
Article
Paediatric COVID-19 Outcomes: Haematology Parameters, Mortality Rates, and Hospitalization Duration
by Abdulrahman Alshalani, Badi A. Alotaibi, Jehad A. Aldali, Hamood AlSudais, Abdulaziz M. Almuqrin, Nasser A. Alshehri, Nasser B. Alamar and Mogtba A. Alhejji
Children 2023, 10(10), 1615; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10101615 - 28 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1117
Abstract
The global COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare systems around the globe, necessitating extensive research into the variables that affect patient outcomes. This study examines the relationships between key haematology parameters, duration of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality rates in COVID-19 cases in paediatric [...] Read more.
The global COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare systems around the globe, necessitating extensive research into the variables that affect patient outcomes. This study examines the relationships between key haematology parameters, duration of hospital stay (LOS), and mortality rates in COVID-19 cases in paediatric patients. Researchers analyse relationships between independent variables (COVID-19 status, age, sex) and dependent variables (mortality, LOS, coagulation parameters, WBC count, RBC parameters) using multivariate regression models. Although the R-square values (0.6–3.7%) indicate limited explanatory power, coefficients with statistical significance establish the impact of independent variables on outcomes. Age emerges as a crucial predictor of mortality; the mortality rate decreases by 1.768% per age group. Both COVID-19 status and age have an inverse relationship with length of stay, emphasising the milder hospitalisation of children. Platelet counts decline with age and male gender, potentially revealing the influence of COVID-19 on haematological markers. There are significant correlations between COVID-19 status, age, gender and coagulation measures. Lower prothrombin time and D-dimer concentrations in elder COVID-19 patients are indicative of distinct coagulation profiles. WBC and RBC parameters exhibit correlations with variables: COVID-19-positive patients have lower WBC counts, whereas male COVID-19-positive patients have higher RBC counts. In addition, correlations exist between independent variables and the red cell distribution width, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin. However, there is no correlation between mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and outcomes, indicating complex interactions between haematological markers and outcomes. In essence, this study underlines the importance of age in COVID-19 mortality, provides novel insights into platelet counts, and emphasises the complexity of the relationships between haematological parameters and disease outcomes. Full article
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18 pages, 514 KiB  
Article
Collecting Paediatric Health-Related Quality of Life Data: Assessing the Feasibility and Acceptability of the Australian Paediatric Multi-Instrument Comparison (P-MIC) Study
by Renee Jones, Rachel O’Loughlin, Xiuqin Xiong, Mina Bahrampour, Kristy McGregor, Shilana Yip, Nancy Devlin, Harriet Hiscock, Brendan Mulhern, Kim Dalziel and on behalf of the Quality of Life in Kids: Key Evidence to Strengthen Decisions in Australia (QUOKKA) Project Team
Children 2023, 10(10), 1604; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10101604 - 26 Sep 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1287
Abstract
Background: Collecting data using paediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments is complex, and there is a paucity of evidence regarding the comparative performance of paediatric HRQoL instruments. The Australian Paediatric Multi-Instrument Comparison (P-MIC) study was conducted to address this paucity of evidence. [...] Read more.
Background: Collecting data using paediatric health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments is complex, and there is a paucity of evidence regarding the comparative performance of paediatric HRQoL instruments. The Australian Paediatric Multi-Instrument Comparison (P-MIC) study was conducted to address this paucity of evidence. This study aims to understand the (1) feasibility of collecting data using paediatric HRQoL instruments in a research setting and (2) acceptability and feasibility for children and their caregivers to complete common paediatric HRQoL instruments using data from the Australian P-MIC study. Methods: Data were from children aged 5–18 years from the Australian P-MIC study. Demographics, cost and time for data collection, dropout rates, and inconsistent responses were used to assess Aim 1. Participant-reported difficulty and completion time were used to assess Aim 2. Subgroup analyses included child age, report type (self/proxy), sample recruitment pathway (hospital/online), and online panel sample type (general population/condition groups). Results: Overall, 5945 P-MIC participants aged 5–18 years completed an initial survey, of these, 2346 also completed the follow-up survey (39.5% response rate). Compared with online panel recruitment, hospital recruitment was more costly and time-consuming and had higher follow-up completion (33.5% versus 80.4%) (Aim 1). Data were of similar good quality (based on inconsistent responses) for both recruitment pathways (Aim 1). Participants completed each instrument in <3 min, on average, and >70% reported each instrument as easy to complete (Aim 2). Conclusions: The Australian P-MIC study was able to collect good-quality data using both online panel and hospital recruitment pathways. All instruments were acceptable and feasible to children and their caregivers. Full article
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12 pages, 309 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Body Fat and Lean Mass on HbA1c and Lipid Profile in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
by Thais Menegucci, Eduardo Federighi Baisi Chagas, Barbara de Oliveira Zanuso, Karina Quesada, Jesselina Francisco dos Santos Haber, Tereza Laís Menegucci Zutin, Luis Felipe Pimenta, Adriano Cressoni Araújo, Elen Landgraf Guiguer, Claudia Rucco P. Detregiachi, Marcia Gabaldi Rocha, Patrícia Cincotto dos Santos Bueno, Lucas Fornari Laurindo and Sandra M. Barbalho
Diseases 2023, 11(4), 125; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/diseases11040125 - 23 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to assess glycemic control in Type 1 diabetes (DM1) patients. Apolipoproteins play an essential role in DM1 pathophysiology and may be associated with complications and HbA1c. This cross-sectional observational study of 81 children and adolescents of both sexes [...] Read more.
Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to assess glycemic control in Type 1 diabetes (DM1) patients. Apolipoproteins play an essential role in DM1 pathophysiology and may be associated with complications and HbA1c. This cross-sectional observational study of 81 children and adolescents of both sexes diagnosed with DM1 investigated the relationship between body fat distribution and lean mass with HbA1C and apolipoprotein values, analyzing biochemical and body composition measurements. A Shapiro–Wilk test with Lilliefors correction, a non-parametric Mann–Whitney test, and others were used with a significance level of 5%. The sample had a diagnosis time of 4.32 years and high blood glucose levels (mean 178.19 mg/dL) and HbA1c (mean 8.57%). Subjects also had a moderate level of adiposity, as indicated by arm and thigh fat areas. The study also found significant differences in the distribution of patients concerning levels of apolipoproteins A and B, with a smaller proportion of patients having undesirable levels. Finally, the study found a significant difference in the distribution of patients with estimated cardiovascular risk based on the ApoB/ApoA-I ratio. Conclusively, visceral fat in children and adolescents with DM1 may increase the risk of DM1 long-term complications owing to its association with elevated HbA1C and apolipoprotein values. Full article
13 pages, 1977 KiB  
Article
Osteopathic Manual Therapy for Infant Colic: A Randomised Clinical Trial
by María del Mar Martínez-Lentisco, Manuel Martín-González, Juan Manuel García-Torrecillas, Eduardo Antequera-Soler and Raquel Chillón-Martínez
Healthcare 2023, 11(18), 2600; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11182600 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Background: Infant colic is a multifactorial syndrome for which various therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of osteopathic manual therapy in treating symptoms related to infant colic. Method: A prospective, randomised, blinded clinical trial was conducted of [...] Read more.
Background: Infant colic is a multifactorial syndrome for which various therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of osteopathic manual therapy in treating symptoms related to infant colic. Method: A prospective, randomised, blinded clinical trial was conducted of patients diagnosed with infant colic. The treatment group were given osteopathic manual therapy, and their parents received two sessions of counselling. The control group received no such therapy, but their parents attended the same counselling sessions. The non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test was applied to determine whether there were significant differences between the groups for the numerical variables considered. For the qualitative variables, Fisher’s exact test was used. The threshold assumed for statistical significance was 0.05. Results: A total of 42 babies were assigned to each group. Those in the experimental group presented less severe infant colic with a trend towards statistical significance after the first session (p = 0.09). In sucking, excretion, eructation and gas there were no significant differences between the groups. Crying was a statistically significant dimension both after the first intervention (p = 0.03) and two weeks after (p = 0.04). Regurgitation values were significantly lower in the experimental group during the three weeks of follow-up (p = 0.05). Values for sleep were lower in the experimental group, but the differences were not statistically significant. In both groups, colic severity decreased over time, with no side effects. Conclusions: Treatment with osteopathic manual therapy alleviates the symptoms of infant colic and could be recommended for this purpose from the onset of the condition. Full article
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10 pages, 1225 KiB  
Article
The Characteristics of Badminton-Related Pain in Pre-Adolescent and Adolescent Badminton Players
by Xiao Zhou, Kazuhiro Imai, Zhuo Chen, Xiaoxuan Liu, Eiji Watanabe and Hongtao Zeng
Children 2023, 10(9), 1501; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10091501 - 2 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Body pain, often considered as an early sign of injury in young players, warrants thorough study. This study aimed to examine the distribution of badminton-related pain and prevalence in pre-adolescent and adolescent badminton players. Profiles of badminton-related pain were surveyed using a questionnaire [...] Read more.
Body pain, often considered as an early sign of injury in young players, warrants thorough study. This study aimed to examine the distribution of badminton-related pain and prevalence in pre-adolescent and adolescent badminton players. Profiles of badminton-related pain were surveyed using a questionnaire among 366 pre-adolescent and adolescent badminton players aged 7–12 years. The distribution of badminton-related pain was described, and the pain incidence was calculated. Proportions of pain per 1000-training-hour exposures were the main outcome measures. The analysis considered various age groups (7–8, 9–10, and 11–12 years) and years of badminton experience (≤2, 2–3, and > 3 years). In total, 554 cases of badminton-related pain were reported. The ankle was the most common site, followed by knee, plantar, shoulder, and lower back. The overall pain rate per 1000-training-hour exposure was 3.06. The 11–12-year-old group showed the highest pain rate, significantly greater than the 7–8-year-old group and the 9–10-year-old group. Additionally, the prevalence of pain exhibited an increasing trend with age. Finally, regardless of the age groups, participants with 2–3 years of badminton experience had the highest pain rate. These findings might help inform targeted interventions to reduce the high prevalence of pain in various body regions across pre-adolescent and adolescent badminton players. Full article
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10 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Diet, Oral Hygiene Habits, and Approach to Dental Visits of Early School-Aged Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic and Possible Long-Term Health Consequences
by Natalia Torlińska-Walkowiak, Karolina Łukaszewicz, Alicja Morawska, Anna Sowińska, Tamara Pawlaczyk-Kamieńska and Justyna Opydo-Szymaczek
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(17), 5690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm12175690 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Introduction: Early school-aged children are in a transitional phase from primary to permanent dentition. Established dietary and oral hygiene habits will influence the condition of the oral cavity in the future. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate alterations in early school children’s dietary [...] Read more.
Introduction: Early school-aged children are in a transitional phase from primary to permanent dentition. Established dietary and oral hygiene habits will influence the condition of the oral cavity in the future. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate alterations in early school children’s dietary and oral hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and to anticipate potential long-term health implications. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional online study involved guardians of Polish children aged 6–10 years, living in Western Poland, who were socially isolated at home during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 180 guardians were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire included 17 questions divided into four different sections—the child’s anthropometric data, dietary habits, oral health, and attitude to dental visits. Results: The survey was completed by 106 guardians. The mean (standard deviation) age of the children was 8.12 (0.93) years (range 6–10 years). Overall, 24.5% of the surveyed individuals reported buying healthy products (fresh vegetables, fruit) more frequently during the pandemic. Furthermore, 35.8% admitted to snacking between meals more frequently and 16.0% less frequently. Almost one-quarter of the parents acknowledged that their children were less motivated to maintain oral hygiene during the pandemic and 28.3% declared a lower frequency of visits to the dentist from the outbreak of the pandemic for two main reasons: a fear of coronavirus transmission and economic reasons. Conclusions: In the group studied, the results of the assessment indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic had some effects on oral health that may lead to an increased risk of oral disease development, such as tooth decay in children. None of the respondents noticed an increase in their child’s motivation about good oral hygiene despite spending more time at home. The irregularity of follow-up visits for one-third of the respondents hindered preventive measures and the continuation of dental treatment. Full article
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8 pages, 1448 KiB  
Case Report
A Case of Acrodermatitis Dysmetabolica in a Child Affected by Citrullinemia Type I: When Early Diagnosis and Timely Treatment Are Not Enough
by Laura Bruni, Alessandra Cassio, Valeria Di Natale, Federico Baronio, Rita Ortolano, Andrea Pession, Bianca Maria Piraccini and Iria Neri
Children 2023, 10(9), 1491; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10091491 - 31 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
An infant with a prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia, who started standard treatment at birth (L-arginine; sodium benzoate and a personalized diet characterized by a low protein intake and supplementation of essential nutrients and amino acids), presented at 4 months of age with extended, [...] Read more.
An infant with a prenatal diagnosis of citrullinemia, who started standard treatment at birth (L-arginine; sodium benzoate and a personalized diet characterized by a low protein intake and supplementation of essential nutrients and amino acids), presented at 4 months of age with extended, progressive, and severe skin lesions consistent with acrodermatitis dysmetabolica. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of urea cycle disorders underline that a low-protein diet places patients at risk of essential fatty acids, trace elements, and vitamin deficiency. At hospital admission, our patient had normal levels of zinc and alkaline phosphatases. The plasmatic amino acid profile revealed a severe and generalized deficiency. In particular, the serum levels of arginine, valine, and isoleucine were very low and the dermatitis did not improve until the blood levels of these amino acids increased. In our patient, skin lesions happened despite an early diagnosis of citrullinemia and timely treatment due to compliance issues as a consequence of linguistic barriers. Full article
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11 pages, 265 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Quality of Life of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis and Quality of Life, Psychiatric Symptomatology, and Caregiver Burden of Their Mothers
by Nülüfer Kilic and Mehmet Kilic
Children 2023, 10(9), 1487; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10091487 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1188
Abstract
Background: The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and that of their mothers. We compared the anxiety and depression scores and caregiving burden of mothers of patients with AD with the [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), and that of their mothers. We compared the anxiety and depression scores and caregiving burden of mothers of patients with AD with the same scores of mothers of healthy children. Materials and Methods: A total of 153 patients between the ages of 2 months and 16 years with AD in our clinic, and their mothers, were contained in the patient group. An additional 141 healthy cases between the ages of 2 months and 16 years, and their mothers, were included as the control group. The Children’s Dermatology Life Quality Index (CDLQI) was completed according to the children’s opinions, and the Infant’s Dermatitis Quality of Life Index (IDLQI), Family Dermatology Life Quality Index (FDLQI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and Zarit Caregiver Burden (ZCB) scale were completed based on the mothers’ opinions. Results: We detected a positive relationship between the SCORAD index and the IDLQI, CDLQI, and FDLQI scores of children with AD. We found that anxiety, depression, and caregiving burden in mothers of AD cases increased when mothers of AD cases were compared with mothers of healthy children (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p < 0.002, respectively). Also, based on the mothers’ responses, we noted a positive correlation among the BDI, BAI, ZCB, and SCORAD index scores. Conclusions: Our study found that the quality of life of patients with AD, and that of their mothers, was negatively affected by the disease. We also found that anxiety, depression levels (not at the clinical diagnosis level, and the caregiving burden in mothers of AD cases increased when mothers of AD cases were compared with mothers of healthy children. Full article
10 pages, 613 KiB  
Article
Impact of Music Therapy on Quality of Life in Children with Cancer
by Faten Fedhila, Mohamed Wassim Hannachi, Elhem Jbebli, Ines Selmi, Samar Rhayem, Issam Magouri, Hedia Bellali and Monia Khemiri
Children 2023, 10(9), 1486; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10091486 - 31 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2200
Abstract
Background: Music therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment increasingly used to reduce stress and anxiety in hospitalized children affected by cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MT on quality of life in children with cancer and determine [...] Read more.
Background: Music therapy (MT) is a non-pharmacological treatment increasingly used to reduce stress and anxiety in hospitalized children affected by cancers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MT on quality of life in children with cancer and determine its effect on cardiorespiratory rates. Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental study between 1 April and 31 August 2021 at Bechir Hamza children’s Hospital in Tunis, including children treated for cancer. The child or parent completed the PedsQL Module Cancer French version 3.0 questionnaires before and after four weekly music therapy sessions. The child’s respiratory and heart rates were measured before and after each session. Results: We included 20 children whose mean age was 7 ± 4.5 years. The median value of the total questionnaire score increased from 57 [46; 70] to 72 [67; 85] (p < 10−3) noting a significant reduction in pain (p = 0.02), nausea (p = 0.009), and anxiety related to medical procedures (p = 0.009) and worry about the future (p = 0.005). We highlighted a significant decrease in respiratory and heart rate after MT (p < 0.05). Conclusions: MT has positive impact on quality of life in children with cancer and reduces stress by lowering their cardiorespiratory rates. Full article
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18 pages, 2335 KiB  
Article
Relevance of Sociocultural Inequalities and Parents’ Origins in Relation to the Oral Health of Preschoolers in Lanzarote, Spain
by Beatriz Prieto-Regueiro, Gladys Gómez-Santos, Daniele Grini, Laura Burgueño-Torres and Montserrat Diéguez-Pérez
Healthcare 2023, 11(16), 2344; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11162344 - 20 Aug 2023
Viewed by 801
Abstract
Approaching inequalities to achieve health equity requires joint action. Early childhood caries affects disadvantaged population groups. The objective of this study was to determine the relevance of sociocultural inequalities and parental origin with respect to oral health in preschool children in Lanzarote. A [...] Read more.
Approaching inequalities to achieve health equity requires joint action. Early childhood caries affects disadvantaged population groups. The objective of this study was to determine the relevance of sociocultural inequalities and parental origin with respect to oral health in preschool children in Lanzarote. A transversal epidemiological study was carried out. Sociocultural data and information about parental origin were collected via a questionnaire. The decayed and filled teeth (dft), decayed teeth (dt), filled teeth (ft), restorative index (RI), plaque index (PI) and gingival index (GI) were obtained via an investigator’s examination. Statistical analysis of the data indicated that children of semi-skilled manual workers (28.15%) had the highest prevalence of caries (46.9%). Additionally 43.7 of the mothers had second grade and first cycle studies. When relating the medium and high level of education, there were statistically significant differences in relation to the cod index (p = 0.046). When the origin was foreign (48.4%), preschoolers presented 10.7% more active or untreated caries than Spaniards (p = 0.038). Low socioeconomic cultural level and foreign origin is associated with a more deficient state of oral health in preschoolers. Oral health programs are needed to minimize social inequalities. Full article
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14 pages, 685 KiB  
Article
Caring for Children with Dravet Syndrome: Exploring the Daily Challenges of Family Caregivers
by Jan Domaradzki and Dariusz Walkowiak
Children 2023, 10(8), 1410; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10081410 - 19 Aug 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1606
Abstract
While Polish studies focus on the symptoms, causes and treatment of people suffering from Dravet syndrome (DS), much less is known about the situation of the family caregivers of DS children. This study was designed to explore the experiences, daily challenges and needs [...] Read more.
While Polish studies focus on the symptoms, causes and treatment of people suffering from Dravet syndrome (DS), much less is known about the situation of the family caregivers of DS children. This study was designed to explore the experiences, daily challenges and needs related to caring for DS children. An anonymous self-administered online questionnaire was developed. The survey was completed by 75 family caregivers affiliated with the Association for People with Severe Refractory Epilepsy DRAVET.PL on Facebook. Most caregivers felt burdened by their children’s reduced mobility (57.3%), mood swings (57.3%), lack of access to rehabilitation and medicine (56%) and healthcare expenses (50.7%). Caregivers also complained of a lack of time to themselves (76%) and work restrictions resulting from caregiving (72%). They consequently reported experiencing fatigue (84%), a deterioration of mental health (60%) and intimacy problems with their spouse/partner (53.4%). An important source of strain was a prolonged diagnostic odyssey and the constant struggle over the healthcare services for DS children. Since DS caregivers’ problems and needs are often overlooked, they may be described as the forgotten people in DS. Healthcare professionals should be educated about the challenges related to caring for DS child, psycho-social status and coping resources of DS caregivers, and should focus on identification, monitoring and supporting caregivers’ physical and mental well-being and needs. Full article
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15 pages, 1405 KiB  
Article
Family Needs Assessment of Patients with Cerebral Palsy Attending Two Hospitals in Accra, Ghana
by Abena K. Aduful, Faye Boamah-Mensah, Mame Yaa Nyarko, Margaret L. Neizer, Yvonne N. Brew, Lovia A. Williams, Benedict N. L. Calys-Tagoe, Henry K. M. Ackun and Edem M. A. Tette
Children 2023, 10(8), 1313; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10081313 - 29 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1898
Abstract
Background: The family represents the most essential and supportive environment for children with cerebral palsy (CP). To improve children’s outcomes, it is crucial to consider the needs of families in order to offer family-centered care, which tailors services to these needs. Objective: We [...] Read more.
Background: The family represents the most essential and supportive environment for children with cerebral palsy (CP). To improve children’s outcomes, it is crucial to consider the needs of families in order to offer family-centered care, which tailors services to these needs. Objective: We conducted a needs assessment to identify the family needs of patients with CP attending two hospitals in Accra. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study involving primary caregivers of children with CP attending neurodevelopmental clinics. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data spanning an 8-month period. The data were summarized, and statistical inference was made. Results: Service needs identified were childcare, counseling, support groups, financial assistance, and recreational facilities. Information needs included adult education, job training/employment opportunities, education, health and social programs, knowledge about child development, and management of behavioral and feeding/nutrition problems. Reducing extensive travel time was desirable to improve access to healthcare. With the increasing severity of symptoms came the need for improved accessibility in the home to reduce the child’s hardship, as well as assistive devices, recreational facilities, and respite for the caregiver(s). Conclusion: Families of children with CP have information, service, and access needs related to their disease severity and family context. Full article
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11 pages, 256 KiB  
Article
Prevalence, Incidence, and Surgical Treatment Trends of Cerebral Palsy across Türkiye: A Nationwide Cohort Study
by İzzet Özay Subaşi, İzzet Bingöl, Niyazi Erdem Yaşar, Ebru Dumlupinar, Naim Ata, M. Mahir Ülgü, Şuayip Birinci, Mustafa Okan Ayvali, Serkan Erkuş, Mehmet Salih Söylemez and Güzelali Özdemir
Children 2023, 10(7), 1182; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10071182 - 7 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. Our aim is to identify the demographics of CP in Turkish children in addition to clinical associations and surgical preferences. Methods: Based on national health system data and the International Classification [...] Read more.
Background: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. Our aim is to identify the demographics of CP in Turkish children in addition to clinical associations and surgical preferences. Methods: Based on national health system data and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for CP, data were evaluated from a total of 53,027 children with CP born between 2016 and 2022, and 9658 of them underwent orthopedic surgery in those years. The incidence and frequency of CP were assessed for the parameters of age and gender. Age at the time of surgery; codes pertaining to surgical interventions; and regions, cities, and hospitals where diagnoses and surgical procedures were performed were also evaluated. Results: There were 29,606 male (55.8%) and 23,421 (44.2%) female patients. The diagnoses of the patients were mostly (76.1%) performed in secondary and tertiary hospitals. The prevalence of CP among children in 2016–2022 was estimated to be 7.74/1000 children. The minimum and maximum incidence rates of cerebral palsy among children between 2016 and 2022 were calculated to be 0.45 and 1.05 per 1000, respectively. Tenoplasty–myoplasty tendon transfer operations were the most common surgeries (47.1%). Conclusion: CP remains a significant health challenge, underpinning a considerable proportion of childhood motor dysfunction. A dedicated national registry system for CP focused on classifying the condition, streamlining treatment, and tracking outcomes would be a valuable tool in our collective efforts to address this critical issue more effectively. Full article
12 pages, 813 KiB  
Article
Cross-Sectional Study on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Using OHIP-14 in Migrants Children in Melilla (Spain)
by David Ribas-Pérez, David Sevillano Garcés, Diego Rodriguez Menacho, Paloma Villalva Hernandez-Franch, Ignacio Barbero Navarro and Antonio Castaño Séiquer
Children 2023, 10(7), 1168; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10071168 - 5 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1493
Abstract
Quality of life is a parameter that not only evaluates clinical parameters, but also refers to the perception of the individual in his or her sociocultural context. It also refers to psychosocial aspects that have a very important impact on people’s lives. Oral [...] Read more.
Quality of life is a parameter that not only evaluates clinical parameters, but also refers to the perception of the individual in his or her sociocultural context. It also refers to psychosocial aspects that have a very important impact on people’s lives. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) must also be considered when assessing oral health in any population for which an oral health program is to be developed. On this premise, and taking into account the precarious situation of refugee children housed in the Temporary Center for Migrants (CETI) in Melilla (Spain), a study was conducted to assess the oral health and OHRQoL of the children housed in the aforementioned facility. For this purpose, the 120 children in care at the time of the study underwent a basic epidemiological examination according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO), and their OHRQoL was assessed using the specific OHIP-14 questionnaire. The results show a state of oral health with a high caries prevalence (95%), high DMFT, and dft indices for the studied population. The oral health-related quality of life perceived by these children shows that pain and psychological discomfort are the areas rated worst by them. Thus, it is concluded that it is important to implement specific oral health programs for this population, based on caries prevention and pain management, which must also take into account the psychological and sociocultural aspects that have accompanied their lives. Full article
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21 pages, 536 KiB  
Review
Social Cognition and Prosocial Behavior in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Systematic Review
by Olber Eduardo Arango-Tobón, Alexandra Guevara Solórzano, Silvia Juliana Orejarena Serrano and Antonio Olivera-La Rosa
Healthcare 2023, 11(10), 1366; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare11101366 - 10 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2880
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to analyze the empirical evidence on the relationship between social cognition and prosocial behavior in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A systematic review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines of empirical studies [...] Read more.
The purpose of this research is to analyze the empirical evidence on the relationship between social cognition and prosocial behavior in children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A systematic review was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines of empirical studies found in PubMed and Scopus databases, including a total of 51 research studies. The results indicate that children and adolescents with ADHD have deficits in social cognition and prosocial behavior. For children with ADHD, their deficits in social cognition highlight their difficulty in the process of theory of mind, emotional self-regulation, emotion recognition and empathy, affecting prosocial behavior, evidencing difficulty in personal relationships, and the creation of emotional bonds with their peers. Full article
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11 pages, 589 KiB  
Article
Really Asymptomatic? Health-Related Quality of Life and Objective Clinical Foot Characteristics among 5–10-Year-Old Children with a Flexible FlatFoot
by Saidas Žukauskas, Vidmantas Barauskas, Ramunė Degliūtė-Muller and Emilis Čekanauskas
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(9), 3331; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/jcm12093331 - 7 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1556
Abstract
The potential effects of asymptomatic flexible flatfoot (FF) on children’s health-related quality of life (QoL) and objective clinical foot characteristics have been poorly investigated in the literature. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse these indicators, comparing the children with asymptomatic FF and a [...] Read more.
The potential effects of asymptomatic flexible flatfoot (FF) on children’s health-related quality of life (QoL) and objective clinical foot characteristics have been poorly investigated in the literature. Therefore, this study aimed to analyse these indicators, comparing the children with asymptomatic FF and a control group. Methods: In total, 351 children were enrolled in this cross-sectional study—160 children with asymptomatic FF and 191 controls (children with normal feet). The children and their parents completed the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQLTM 4.0). The objective foot characteristics included clinical foot posture measures, footprints, general hyperlaxity, and X-ray measurements. Results: Children with asymptomatic FF had a significantly lower QoL (overall and all four dimensions). The parents’ assessment of the QoL of their children with asymptomatic FF in most cases was lower compared to their children’s self-reported QoL. Moreover, almost all clinical foot measures also had significantly worse profiles among asymptomatic FF cases compared to the controls. This was observed with the Foot Posture Index-6 (FPI-6), the navicular drop (ND) test, the Chippaux–Smirak Index (CSI), Staheli’s Index (SI), the Beighton scale, and radiological angles (except the talo-first metatarsal angle). Conclusion: The findings suggest that asymptomatic FF not always reflects a normal foot development. This condition is related to decreased health-related quality of life, so the 5–10-year-old children’s and their parents’ complaints should be considered more closely in identification, treatment, and monitoring plans. Full article
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11 pages, 483 KiB  
Article
International Adoption of Children with Special Needs in Spain
by Alicia Hernanz Lobo, Arantxa Berzosa Sánchez, Lucía Escolano, Sara Pérez Muñoz, Nathalia Gerig, Talía Sainz, María Jose Mellado Peña and Milagros García López Hortelano
Children 2023, 10(4), 690; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children10040690 - 5 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1256
Abstract
International adoption has declined in recent years, although the adoption of children with special needs has arisen. We aim to describe our experience in the international adoption of children with special needs and to analyze the concordance between the pathologies included in pre-adoption [...] Read more.
International adoption has declined in recent years, although the adoption of children with special needs has arisen. We aim to describe our experience in the international adoption of children with special needs and to analyze the concordance between the pathologies included in pre-adoption reports and the diagnosis made upon arrival. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study including internationally adopted children with special needs evaluated at a reference Spanish unit between 2016 and 2019. Epidemiological and clinical variables were collected from medical records, and pre-adoption reports were compared to established diagnoses following their evaluation and complementary tests. Fifty-seven children were included: 36.8% females, a median age of 27 months [IQR:17–39], mostly coming from China (63.2%) and Vietnam (31.6%). The main pathologies described in the pre-adoption reports were congenital surgical malformations (40.3%), hematological (22.6%), and neurological (24.6%). The initial diagnosis that motivated the international adoption via special needs was confirmed in 79% of the children. After evaluation, 14% were diagnosed with weight and growth delay, and 17.5% with microcephaly, not previously reported. Infectious diseases were also prevalent (29.8%). According to our series, the pre-adoption reports of children with special needs appear accurate, with a low rate of new diagnoses. Pre-existing conditions were confirmed in almost 80% of cases. Full article
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