Topic Editors

Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima City 960-1295, Japan
Dr. Yuko Yoshida
Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, 35-2 Sakae-cho, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo 173-0015, Japan

Personality, Health and Well-Being among Different Age Groups

Abstract submission deadline
31 October 2024
Manuscript submission deadline
31 December 2024
Viewed by
14244

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Recent epidemiological studies have reported consistent relationships between psychological factors, including personality, and health outcomes among different age groups. In this context, personality refers to the psychological qualities that contribute to an individual's enduring and distinctive patterns of feeling, thinking, and behaving. The relationships between personality and longevity, chronic disease, cognitive decline, mental health, physical fitness, and subjective well-being have already been clarified. However, there are some health outcomes that are not well-known to be related to personality but considered important (e.g., social isolation, care giving burden, coping skills for stressful life events, and frailty), and the detailed pathways from personality to health outcomes remain unclear. This topic aims to contribute to our knowledge of the relationship between individual psychological factors (including personality) and the health and well-being, in addition to elucidating the mechanisms underlying these relationships (e.g., mediation process and moderating effect). The editor invites you to submit presentations of research regarding the relationships between personality, health, and well-being among different age groups (including children and adolescents, adults, and elderly), and also in various situations (e.g., in the community, at home, at the workplace, and at school). Original articles, literature reviews, meta-analyses, brief reports, and commentaries are welcomed.

Dr. Hajime Iwasa
Dr. Yuko Yoshida
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • personality
  • well-being
  • mental and physical health
  • cognitive function
  • individual differences
  • mediation process
  • moderating effect

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Behavioral Sciences
behavsci
2.6 2.6 2011 21.5 Days CHF 2200 Submit
Brain Sciences
brainsci
3.3 4.8 2011 15.6 Days CHF 2200 Submit
Children
children
2.4 2.7 2014 13.8 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Geriatrics
geriatrics
2.3 3.3 2016 22.4 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Healthcare
healthcare
2.8 3.5 2013 19.5 Days CHF 2700 Submit

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Published Papers (10 papers)

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13 pages, 387 KiB  
Article
Gratitude Predicts Meaning in Life in Family Caregivers of Persons with Alzheimer’s Disease
by Jocelyn Shealy McGee, Edward C. Polson, Dennis R. Myers, Angela M. McClellan, Weiming Ke, Holly Carlson Zhao and Rebecca Meraz
Geriatrics 2024, 9(3), 72; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics9030072 - 30 May 2024
Viewed by 168
Abstract
Gratitude is a well-known and researched internal positive psychological resource. Empirical data, however, on the association between gratitude, meaning in life, and burden in family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease is scant. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the [...] Read more.
Gratitude is a well-known and researched internal positive psychological resource. Empirical data, however, on the association between gratitude, meaning in life, and burden in family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease is scant. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the relationships among these variables in a sample of family caregivers of persons with Alzheimer’s; and (2) determine if gratitude mediates the effects of perceived burden on meaning in life in this population. One-hundred and twenty-six adult family caregivers, most of whom were an intimate partner or adult child of a person with Alzheimer’s, completed the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Item, the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Zarit Burden Inventory, and other relevant measures. A series of OLS regression models, guided by the caregiver stress process model, were conducted. These analyses demonstrated that gratitude was a predictor of the presence of meaning in life among the caregivers in this study even when other key variables were considered. Furthermore, analyses revealed that gratitude fully mediated the effects of caregiver burden on the presence of meaning in life in this sample. Thus, clinicians should consider gratitude as an important internal resource for cultivating meaning in life in this population, especially when caregiver burden is present. Gratitude-bolstering clinical interventions should be further developed and tested as both stand-alone and complimentary additions to empirically supported psychoeducational approaches for supporting health and well-being in this population. Full article
15 pages, 632 KiB  
Article
Savoring Belief, Resilience, and Meaning in Life as Pathways to Happiness: A Sequential Mediation Analysis among Taiwanese University Students
by Der-Fa Chen, Kai-Wen Huang, Wei-Sho Ho and Yao-Chung Cheng
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(5), 388; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs14050388 - 5 May 2024
Viewed by 1072
Abstract
In recent decades, scholarly interest has grown in the psychological components of happiness. Savoring belief, or the capacity to attend to, appreciate, and enhance the positive experiences in one’s life, along with resilience and meaning in life, have emerged as significant predictors of [...] Read more.
In recent decades, scholarly interest has grown in the psychological components of happiness. Savoring belief, or the capacity to attend to, appreciate, and enhance the positive experiences in one’s life, along with resilience and meaning in life, have emerged as significant predictors of enhanced happiness among diverse populations. This research examined the interrelationships among savoring belief, resilience, meaning in life, and happiness. A sample of 561 students from 75 universities in Taiwan, comprising 361 female and 200 male participants with an average age of 20.88 years, participated in an online survey. The study employed various instruments, including the Savoring Belief Inventory, the Subjective Happiness Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, and the Meaning in Life Questionnaire. These instruments were translated into Traditional Chinese using a back-translation method and subsequently validated for accuracy by specialists in the field. Analysis of the data using Hayes’ PROCESS Model 6 revealed several key insights: (1) savoring belief positively influenced happiness, resilience, and meaning in life with resilience further enhancing happiness and meaning in life; (2) resilience served as a significant mediator in the relationship between savoring belief and happiness; (3) meaning in life significantly mediated the relationship between savoring belief and happiness; (4) a sequential mediation model illustrated the mediating effects of resilience and meaning in life on the relationship between savoring belief and happiness. This study illustrates that, much like a garden requires water, sunlight, and care to flourish, our happiness is cultivated through enhancing our ability to savor the good moments, rebound from challenges, and find deep significance in our lives. We can significantly boost well-being by fostering these qualities—savoring belief, resilience, and a sense of meaning. These findings are particularly relevant for educators, highlighting the critical need to develop these traits in students to promote greater happiness and fulfillment in their lives. Discussions included theoretical implications, educational implications, and avenues for future research. Full article
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15 pages, 1136 KiB  
Systematic Review
Emotional and Social Outcomes of the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility Model in Physical Education: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
by Yalin Aygun, Hulusi Boke, Fatma Hilal Yagin, Sakir Tufekci, Talha Murathan, Ertugrul Gencay, Pablo Prieto-González and Luca Paolo Ardigò
Children 2024, 11(4), 459; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/children11040459 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1065
Abstract
Context: In today’s ever-changing world, fostering personal and social responsibility is essential for building strong and compassionate communities. This study aimed to provide a quantitative synthesis focusing on the emotional and social outcomes of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model-based Physical Education [...] Read more.
Context: In today’s ever-changing world, fostering personal and social responsibility is essential for building strong and compassionate communities. This study aimed to provide a quantitative synthesis focusing on the emotional and social outcomes of Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model-based Physical Education (PE) programs. Methods: A comprehensive literature review covering the period from November 2022 to September 2023 identified 637 articles published between 2005 and 2023. Of these, 20 met the inclusion criteria. Data from these articles were coded, and a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted, incorporating 28 effect sizes. Methodological quality was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument. Hedge’s g served as the effect size measure and emotional and social outcomes subgroups were consolidated. Heterogeneity was evaluated with Cochran’s Q and I2. Meta-regression and ANOVA-like models addressed categorical moderators, whereas publication bias was assessed through funnel plot, failsafe number, and Egger’s linear regression. Results: A significant and positive effect of the TPSR model on product outcomes (Hedge’s g = 0.337, 95% CI = 0.199 to 0.476) was found. Despite considerable heterogeneity (I2 = 83.830), a random effects model was justified. Assessment of publication bias indicated a low likelihood. Moderator analyses revealed that publication countries significantly influenced the effect, with stronger effects in Turkey. Publication type (article vs. thesis) also played roles in moderation. The meta-regression analyses did not reveal significant effects for the grade level, duration of intervention, publication year or sample size on the TPSR model’s impact on product outcomes. The TPSR model positively impacts emotional and social outcomes in PE, enhancing children’ skills and behaviour. However, variations across cultures highlight the need for further research, considering limitations like language constraints and potential biases in study selection and data extraction. Full article
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14 pages, 218 KiB  
Article
Quasi-Seniors’ Perception, Response, and Planning from the Perspective of Successful Aging
by Ming-Shien Wen, Miao-Hsien Chuang and Jinkwan Lin
Healthcare 2024, 12(7), 766; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/healthcare12070766 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 682
Abstract
With the coming of a rapidly aging society, individuals born in the baby boom era after World War II are now facing the challenges of aging. From late middle age to successful aging, what are the perceptions and responses of these quasi-seniors? With [...] Read more.
With the coming of a rapidly aging society, individuals born in the baby boom era after World War II are now facing the challenges of aging. From late middle age to successful aging, what are the perceptions and responses of these quasi-seniors? With this in mind, referring to Phelan’s successful aging scale, the researchers developed the 4P Strategies (Physical, Psychological, Prospect, and Place and Relationships) tailored for quasi-seniors. Based on grounded theory, the results of 12 sessions of focused interviews (involving a total of 93 interviewees between the ages of 55 and 75; 41 males and 52 females; 48 not retired and 45 retired) were matched with the 4P Strategies. The results were the following: (1) regarding the Physical factor, the interviewees were shocked by their physical decline, and they had begun to devise strategies for health preservation and exercise; (2) regarding the Psychological factor, in order to mentally adapt, the interviewees agreed that moderate stress relief was absolutely necessary; (3) regarding the Prospect factor: the interviewees felt that one should make financial plans early, contemplate the value of life, and more actively learn and realize one’s dreams; and (4) regarding the Place and Relationships factor, the interviewees aimed to rebuild their close relationships with their spouses, family members, and old friends and had polarized views regarding where to live in their old age. On the whole, the most discussed issue among the interviewees was where to live in their old age. Many had their own views and plans and did not stick to traditional views; however, they took the opinions of their significant others into account. During the interviews, interviewees wished to understand the responses of their peers to serve as a reference for their own decisions, and they realized that successful aging also required learning. This study aimed to encourage quasi-seniors about to enter their old age and help them to learn how to positively respond to aging as well as work towards a happy life with successful aging. This study could fill in gaps in research involving individuals in this age group and provide a reference for relevant policies. Full article
13 pages, 981 KiB  
Article
Emotion Regulation and Self-Efficacy: The Mediating Role of Emotional Stability and Extraversion in Adolescence
by Pablo Doménech, Ana M. Tur-Porcar and Vicenta Mestre-Escrivá
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 206; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs14030206 - 4 Mar 2024
Viewed by 3927
Abstract
The feeling of emotional self-efficacy helps people understand how to handle positive and negative emotions. Emotion regulation is the process that helps people control their emotions so that they can adapt to the demands of the environment. This study has a twofold aim. [...] Read more.
The feeling of emotional self-efficacy helps people understand how to handle positive and negative emotions. Emotion regulation is the process that helps people control their emotions so that they can adapt to the demands of the environment. This study has a twofold aim. First, it examines the relationships among emotion regulation, the personality traits of extraversion and emotional stability, and the feeling of emotional self-efficacy for positive and negative emotions in an adolescent population. Second, it examines the mediating role of personality traits (extraversion and emotional stability) in the relationship between emotion regulation and emotional self-efficacy for positive and negative emotions. The participants were 703 adolescents (49.9% male and 50.1% female) aged between 15 and 18 years (M = 15.86, SD = 0.30). Significant relationships were observed among emotion regulation, the personality traits of extraversion and emotional stability, and emotional self-efficacy for positive and negative emotions. The structural equation model confirmed the direct link between emotion regulation and emotional self-efficacy and mediation by the personality traits of extraversion and emotional stability. This study confirms that emotional self-efficacy is connected to the emotion regulation strategies that adolescents use. Effective emotion regulation encourages self-perception and emotional coping. The results are discussed in connection to previous research. Full article
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7 pages, 602 KiB  
Case Report
Tirzepatide and Glycemic Control Metrics Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Older Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Pilot Study
by Takuya Omura, Akemi Inami, Taiki Sugimoto, Shuji Kawashima, Takashi Sakurai and Haruhiko Tokuda
Geriatrics 2024, 9(2), 27; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics9020027 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1718
Abstract
This observational pilot study aimed to investigate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics in older Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a CGM system (FreeStyle Libre Pro) during the first tirzepatide administration and compare the glycemic control measures before and after [...] Read more.
This observational pilot study aimed to investigate continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) metrics in older Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a CGM system (FreeStyle Libre Pro) during the first tirzepatide administration and compare the glycemic control measures before and after the initial injection. The four patients had a mean age of 79.5 years (standard deviation [SD]: 5.8), a mean body mass index of 24.6 kg/m2 (SD: 4.7), a mean glycated hemoglobin level of 9.1% (SD: 2.1), and a mean measurement period of 10.5 days (SD: 3.5). After the inclusion of tirzepatide treatment, the mean of time in range, time above range, and time below range changed from 53.2% to 78.9% (p = 0.041), 45.8% to 19.7% (p = 0.038), and 1.0% to 1.5% (p = 0.206), respectively. Improved hyperglycemia reduced the oral hypoglycemic medication in two cases and decreased the frequency of insulin injections in two cases. To elucidate the potential benefits of tirzepatide, future studies should investigate the long-term impact on functional prognosis, safety, and tolerability and distinguish between the use of other weekly agonists, especially in nonobese older Asian patients. However, tirzepatide-associated robust glycemic improvement may simplify diabetes treatment regimens in older patients with T2DM. Full article
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11 pages, 481 KiB  
Article
Grit and Second Language Learning Engagement: The Mediating Role of Affect Balance
by Chenggang Wu, Xiaoyong Tian and Hui Jin
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 184; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs14030184 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1254
Abstract
The study of the relationship between key psychological attributes of learners and their engagement in second language (L2) learning helps to understand the critical personality mechanisms influencing language learning. The present study examined the L2 learning engagement from the perspectives of grit (i.e., [...] Read more.
The study of the relationship between key psychological attributes of learners and their engagement in second language (L2) learning helps to understand the critical personality mechanisms influencing language learning. The present study examined the L2 learning engagement from the perspectives of grit (i.e., consistent efforts and interests devoted to a long-term goal) and affect balance (a notion that takes into account both positive and negative emotions concurrently, assessing and evaluating which side holds more significance or influence). A cohort of English L2 learners (N = 394) participated in an online survey aimed at gauging their levels of grit, affect balance, and engagement in L2 learning. The results indicated that grit and affect balance were significantly correlated with behavioral engagement and affective engagement in L2 learning. However, among the two components of grit, namely consistency of interest, showed no significant relationship with L2 learning engagement, while perseverance of effort was significantly positively correlated with L2 learning engagement. Affect balance played a partially mediating and full mediating role between perseverance of effort and behavioral engagement as well as affective engagement respectively. These findings confirm the crucial role of perseverance of effort in second language learning and reveal the unique role of affect balance in their relationship. Full article
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11 pages, 276 KiB  
Article
Filial Maturity and Caregiving to Aging Parents
by Diana Morais, Carla Faria and Lia Fernandes
Geriatrics 2024, 9(1), 17; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/geriatrics9010017 - 1 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1303
Abstract
The aging of parents results in changes in the filial relationship. The increasing vulnerability of parents leads adult children to realize that they have individual needs and cannot fully function as sources of security and protection, as they did before. Simultaneously, the evidence [...] Read more.
The aging of parents results in changes in the filial relationship. The increasing vulnerability of parents leads adult children to realize that they have individual needs and cannot fully function as sources of security and protection, as they did before. Simultaneously, the evidence of losses and disability imposes the need for care, which tends to be assumed by adult children. Therefore, there is a progressive change in the volume of support exchanges between parents and children, with more support from adult children to parents. The way adult children adapt to these transitions is influenced by several internal and relational factors. Filial maturity has been associated with filial caregiving towards aging parents. The concept of filial maturity describes a developmental stage in which the adult child overcomes the filial crisis, realizing and accepting that the parent also needs support and comfort and starting to relate to him/her beyond the strictly parental role. Thus, this study aims to explore the role of attachment and mental representation of caregiving in filial maturity. A total of 304 children aged between 35 and 64 years old participated in this study, with at least one of the living parents aged 65 years or older, not institutionalized. Attachment was assessed with the Adult Attachment Scale, mental representation of caregiving with the Mental Representations of Caregiving Scale and filial maturity with the Filial Maturity Measure. The results suggest that attachment, mental representation of caregiving and the interaction between the two explain 24.5% (p < 0.01) of variability in Comprehending and 11.1% (p < 0.05) of variability in Distance, two dimensions of filial maturity. These findings suggest that it is important to consider mental representation of caregiving and attachment when adult children must adapt to changes in the filial relationship and to the need to care for parents. Full article
11 pages, 750 KiB  
Article
Association of Spousal Social Support in Child-Rearing and Marital Satisfaction with Subjective Well-Being among Fathers and Mothers
by Hajime Iwasa, Yuko Yoshida and Kayoko Ishii
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 106; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs14020106 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 966
Abstract
This study explored the association of spousal support and marital satisfaction with the subjective well-being of fathers and mothers using a mediation analysis. Data were gathered from 360 fathers and 338 mothers (aged 25–50 years). Subjective well-being was measured as an outcome using [...] Read more.
This study explored the association of spousal support and marital satisfaction with the subjective well-being of fathers and mothers using a mediation analysis. Data were gathered from 360 fathers and 338 mothers (aged 25–50 years). Subjective well-being was measured as an outcome using the Japanese version of the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index. Marital satisfaction was measured as a mediating variable using the Japanese version of the Marital Relationship Satisfaction Scale. Spousal social support (including instrumental, emotional, and appraisal support) was measured as an independent variable using four-point scales. Control variables were the father’s and mother’s ages, number of children, age of the youngest child, children going to nursery school or kindergarten, use of childcare services, self-evaluated low economic status, and weekday working hours. Among fathers, instrumental and emotional support had significant direct and indirect effects, with the latter mediated by the impact of marital satisfaction on subjective well-being; appraisal support had only significant indirect effects. Among mothers, instrumental support had significant direct and indirect effects; emotional and appraisal support had only significant indirect effects. Our findings indicate that social support from spouses has protective direct and indirect effects on subjective well-being among parents and suggest the need for mutual support between spouses to facilitate effective co-parenting. Full article
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10 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Involvement of Personality and Health Status in the Psychological Wellbeing of Subjects with Chronic Disease
by Cristina Rivera-Picón, Juan Luis Sánchez-González, Marta Rivera-Picón and Pedro Manuel Rodríguez-Muñoz
Behav. Sci. 2024, 14(2), 99; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/bs14020099 - 28 Jan 2024
Viewed by 978
Abstract
(1) Background: Psychological wellbeing correlates with improved physical and psychological health, as this construct plays a fundamental role in disease recovery and health maintenance. Hence, for healthcare professionals, understanding the factors that predict psychological wellbeing is of great interest. Thus, the objective of [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Psychological wellbeing correlates with improved physical and psychological health, as this construct plays a fundamental role in disease recovery and health maintenance. Hence, for healthcare professionals, understanding the factors that predict psychological wellbeing is of great interest. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether health status and personality traits influence psychological wellbeing. (2) Methods: The total sample (N = 600) consisted of HIV patients, individuals with diabetes, and healthy subjects from the Salamanca Clinical Hospital. The instruments used for data collection included a sociodemographic questionnaire, Ryff’s Psychological Wellbeing Scale, and the Spanish version of the Big Five Taxonomy to measure personality. (3) Results: Specific personality traits, such as Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Responsibility, and Integrity were significant predictors of different dimensions of psychological wellbeing. Regarding health status, individuals with diabetes and healthy subjects, compared to HIV+ subjects, were associated with higher levels of psychological wellbeing dimensions. (4) Conclusions: Individual differences in personality traits and the diagnosis of a chronic condition may play a fundamental role in psychological wellbeing. These conclusions are of great interest for developing strategies aimed at individuals with chronic illnesses and specific personality traits associated with poorer psychological wellbeing. Full article
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