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Review

IL-21 in Homeostasis of Resident Memory and Exhausted CD8 T Cells during Persistent Infection

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(18), 6966; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186966
Received: 31 August 2020 / Revised: 18 September 2020 / Accepted: 20 September 2020 / Published: 22 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in T Cell Immunity)
CD4 T cells guide the development of CD8 T cells into memory by elaborating mitogenic and differentiation factors and by licensing professional antigen-presenting cells. CD4 T cells also act to stave off CD8 T cell dysfunction during repetitive antigen stimulation in persistent infection and cancer by mitigating generation of exhausted T cells (TEX). CD4 T cell help is also required for establishing and maintaining tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM), the nonrecirculating memory T cell subset parked in nonlymphoid tissues to provide frontline defense against reinvading pathogens. Interleukin (IL)-21 is the signature cytokine secreted by follicular helper CD4 T cells (TFH) to drive B cell expansion and differentiation in germinal centers to mount high-affinity, isotype class-switched antibodies. In several infection models, IL-21 has been identified as the CD4 T help needed for formation and survival of TRM and TEX. In this review, we will explore the different memory subsets of CD8 T cells in persistent infections, the metabolic profiles associated with each, and evidence documenting the importance of CD4 T cell-derived IL-21 in regulating CD8 TRM and TEX development, homeostasis, and function. View Full-Text
Keywords: interleukin (IL)-21; CD8 T cells; CD4 T cells; resident memory; exhaustion; persistent infection interleukin (IL)-21; CD8 T cells; CD4 T cells; resident memory; exhaustion; persistent infection
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ren, H.M.; Lukacher, A.E. IL-21 in Homeostasis of Resident Memory and Exhausted CD8 T Cells during Persistent Infection. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 6966. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186966

AMA Style

Ren HM, Lukacher AE. IL-21 in Homeostasis of Resident Memory and Exhausted CD8 T Cells during Persistent Infection. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(18):6966. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186966

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ren, Heather M., and Aron E. Lukacher 2020. "IL-21 in Homeostasis of Resident Memory and Exhausted CD8 T Cells during Persistent Infection" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 18: 6966. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21186966

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