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Review

Current Synthesis and Systematic Review of Main Effects of Calf Blood Deproteinized Medicine (Actovegin®) in Ischemic Stroke

1
The Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine & Balneology Clinic Division—The NeuroRehabilitation Compartment, Teaching Emergency Hospital of the Ilfov County, 22104 Bucharest, Romania
2
Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, “Dunarea de Jos” University of Galati, 800008 Galati, Romania
3
The Gerontology and Geriatrics Clinic Department, Teaching County Emergency Hospital “Sf. Apostol Andrei”, 800578 Galati, Romania
4
Physical and Rehabilitation MedicineDepartment, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila”, 020022 Bucharest, Romania
5
The Neuromuscular Rehabilitation Clinic Division, Teaching Emergency Hospital ”Bagdasar-Arseni”, 041915 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current work address: Berceni Av., No. 12, 4th Sector, 041915 Bucharest., Romania.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3181; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093181
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 25 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroregeneration and Brain Repair after Stroke)
Background: Stroke is one of the largest problems and clinical-social challenges within neurology and, in general, pathology. Here, we briefly reviewed the main pathophysiological mechanisms of ischemic stroke, which represent targets for medical interventions, including for a calf blood deproteinized hemodialysate/ultrafiltrate. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of current related literature concerning the effects of Actovegin®, of mainly the pleiotropic type, applied to the injury pathways of ischemic stroke. Results: The bibliographic resources regarding the use of Actovegin® in ischemic stroke are scarce. The main Actovegin® actions refer to the ischemic stroke lesion items’ ensemble, targeting tissue oxidation, energy metabolism, and glucose availability through their augmentation, combating ischemic processes and oxidative stress, and decreasing inflammation (including with modulatory connotations, by the nuclear factor-κB pathway) and apoptosis-like processes, counteracting them by mitigating the caspase-3 activation induced by amyloid β-peptides. Conclusion: Since no available therapeutic agents are capable of curing the central nervous system’s lesions, any contribution, such as that of Actovegin® (with consideration of a positive balance between benefits and risks), is worthy of further study and periodic reappraisal, including investigation into further connected aspects. View Full-Text
Keywords: ischemic stroke; pathophysiological/damage mechanisms; endogenous defense activity; pleiotropic action; deproteinized ultrafiltrate/hemodialysate compound; Actovegin® ischemic stroke; pathophysiological/damage mechanisms; endogenous defense activity; pleiotropic action; deproteinized ultrafiltrate/hemodialysate compound; Actovegin®
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MDPI and ACS Style

Firan, F.C.; Romila, A.; Onose, G. Current Synthesis and Systematic Review of Main Effects of Calf Blood Deproteinized Medicine (Actovegin®) in Ischemic Stroke. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 3181. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093181

AMA Style

Firan FC, Romila A, Onose G. Current Synthesis and Systematic Review of Main Effects of Calf Blood Deproteinized Medicine (Actovegin®) in Ischemic Stroke. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2020; 21(9):3181. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093181

Chicago/Turabian Style

Firan, Florentina C., Aurelia Romila, and Gelu Onose. 2020. "Current Synthesis and Systematic Review of Main Effects of Calf Blood Deproteinized Medicine (Actovegin®) in Ischemic Stroke" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, no. 9: 3181. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijms21093181

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