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Article

Effect of Time-of-Day-Exercise in Group Settings on Level of Mood and Depression of Former Elite Male Athletes

1
Department of Sport Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34148-96818, Iran
2
Activité Physique, Sport et Santé, UR18JS01, Observatoire National du Sport, Tunis 1003, Tunisia
3
Institut Supérieur du Sport et de l’éducation physique de Sfax, Université de Sfax, Sfax 3000, Tunisia
4
Exercise Physiology Laboratory, 18450 Nikaia, Greece
5
Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland
6
Medbase St. Gallen Am Vadianplatz, 9001 St. Gallen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(19), 3541; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193541
Received: 19 July 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 22 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports and Health)
Since the prevalence of depression is high among athletes at the end of their athletic career, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day-exercise in group settings on the level of the mood and depression of former elite male athletes.Out of 187 volunteers referring to the sports counseling clinic, 71 retired male athletes who had a national championship record were randomly divided into two morning and evening exercise groups. The inclusion criteria were severe depression (high score in the Beck Depression Inventory-II), the age range of 50 to 60 years, the absence of metabolic syndrome, and the body mass index (BMI) between 28 and 35. All body composition variables were measured using body composition analysis (In Body 320; Korea). The second stage was the collection of data after three months (completion of the training protocol). After data collection, independent and dependent t-tests were used to analyze the data. The results indicated that both groups had a significant improvement in depression compared to the pre-test (p ≤ 0.05), while there was no significant difference between the two groups (p ≥ 0.05). The overall conclusion is that exercise at different times of the morning or evening can improve the psychological state and reduce depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: time-of-day; mood; depression; elite athlete time-of-day; mood; depression; elite athlete
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MDPI and ACS Style

Irandoust, K.; Taheri, M.; Chtourou, H.; Nikolaidis, P.T.; Rosemann, T.; Knechtle, B. Effect of Time-of-Day-Exercise in Group Settings on Level of Mood and Depression of Former Elite Male Athletes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3541. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193541

AMA Style

Irandoust K, Taheri M, Chtourou H, Nikolaidis PT, Rosemann T, Knechtle B. Effect of Time-of-Day-Exercise in Group Settings on Level of Mood and Depression of Former Elite Male Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(19):3541. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193541

Chicago/Turabian Style

Irandoust, Khadijah, Morteza Taheri, Hamdi Chtourou, Pantelis T. Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, and Beat Knechtle. 2019. "Effect of Time-of-Day-Exercise in Group Settings on Level of Mood and Depression of Former Elite Male Athletes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 19: 3541. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16193541

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