Next Article in Journal
Design of Temperature Insurance Index and Risk Zonation for Single-Season Rice in Response to High-Temperature and Low-Temperature Damage: A Case Study of Jiangsu Province, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Use of Machine Learning in the Analysis of Indoor ELF MF Exposure in Children
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Emerging Environmental Risk Factors in Thyroid Cancer: A Brief Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Statistical Evaluation of Radiofrequency Exposure during Magnetic Resonant Imaging: Application of Whole-Body Individual Human Model and Body Motion in the Coil
Article

Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health Care—Exposure and Safety Aspects

Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, S-90185 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1186; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071186
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 26 March 2019 / Accepted: 28 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
The main aim of the study was to identify and describe methods using non-ionizing radiation (NIR) such as electromagnetic fields (EMF) and optical radiation in Swedish health care. By examining anticipated exposure levels and by identifying possible health hazards we also aimed to recognize knowledge gaps in the field. NIR is mainly used in health care for diagnosis and therapy. Three applications were identified where acute effects cannot be ruled out: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrosurgery. When using optical radiation, such as class 3 and 4 lasers for therapy or surgical procedures and ultra-violet light for therapy, acute effects such as unintentional burns, photo reactions, erythema and effects on the eyes need to be avoided. There is a need for more knowledge regarding long-term effects of MRI as well as on the combination of different NIR exposures. Based on literature and after consulting staff we conclude that the health care professionals’ knowledge about the risks and safety measures should be improved and that there is a need for clear, evidence-based information from reliable sources, and it should be obvious to the user which source to address. View Full-Text
Keywords: NIR; health care; exposure; safety; EMF; MRI; TMS; UV; Laser NIR; health care; exposure; safety; EMF; MRI; TMS; UV; Laser
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Hansson Mild, K.; Lundström, R.; Wilén, J. Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health Care—Exposure and Safety Aspects. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 1186. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071186

AMA Style

Hansson Mild K, Lundström R, Wilén J. Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health Care—Exposure and Safety Aspects. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019; 16(7):1186. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071186

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hansson Mild, Kjell, Ronnie Lundström, and Jonna Wilén. 2019. "Non-Ionizing Radiation in Swedish Health Care—Exposure and Safety Aspects" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16, no. 7: 1186. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph16071186

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop