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Polycycl. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure of Children in Typical Household Coal Combustion Environments: Seasonal Variations, Sources, and Carcinogenic Risks

School of Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6520; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186520
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 6 August 2020 / Accepted: 17 August 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions from the combustion of household solid coal for cooking and heating cause great harm to public health in China, especially in less developed areas. Children are one of the most susceptible population groups at risk of indoor air pollutants due to their immature respiratory and immune systems. However, information on PAH exposure of children is limited due to limited monitoring data. In this study, we aimed to assess the seasonal differences of PAHs in classrooms, analyze the pollutant sources, and calculate the incremental lifetime cancer risk attributable to PAHs in Shanxi Provence. A typical school using household coal combustion in Shanxi Province was selected. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5)samples were collected by both individual samplers and fixed middle-flow samplers during the heating and non-heating seasons in December 2018 and April 2019. The PAH concentrations in PM2.5 samples were analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The results showed that PAH concentrations in PM2.5 varied between 89.1 ng/m3 in the heating season and 1.75 ng/m3 in the non-heating season. The mean concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic marker of PAHs, were 10.3 and 0.05 ng/m3 in the heating and non-heating seasons, respectively. Source allocation analysis of individual portable and passive samplers revealed that the main contributors during heating and non-heating seasons were coal combustion and gasoline sources, respectively. According to the results of a Monte Carlo simulation, the incremental lifetime cancer risk values from the inhalation of PAHs in the heating and non-heating seasons were 3.1 × 10−6 and 5.7 × 10−8, respectively. The significant increase in PAHs and the incremental lifetime cancer risk in the heating season indicates that children are more exposed to health threats in winter. Further PAH exposure control strategies, including reducing coal usage and promoting clean fuel applications, need to be developed to reduce the risk of PAH-induced cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: seasonal variation; children exposure; household solid fuel; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; risk assessment seasonal variation; children exposure; household solid fuel; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Qin, N.; Liang, W.; Chen, X.; Hou, R.; Kang, Y.; Guo, Q.; Cao, S.; Duan, X. Polycycl. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure of Children in Typical Household Coal Combustion Environments: Seasonal Variations, Sources, and Carcinogenic Risks. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 6520. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186520

AMA Style

Liu Y, Qin N, Liang W, Chen X, Hou R, Kang Y, Guo Q, Cao S, Duan X. Polycycl. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure of Children in Typical Household Coal Combustion Environments: Seasonal Variations, Sources, and Carcinogenic Risks. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(18):6520. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186520

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Yunwei; Qin, Ning; Liang, Weigang; Chen, Xing; Hou, Rong; Kang, Yijin; Guo, Qian; Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli. 2020. "Polycycl. Aromatic Hydrocarbon Exposure of Children in Typical Household Coal Combustion Environments: Seasonal Variations, Sources, and Carcinogenic Risks" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 18: 6520. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17186520

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