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Article

Barriers and Facilitators to Leisure Physical Activity in Children: A Qualitative Approach Using the Socio-Ecological Model

1
Faculty of Nursing, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain
2
Social and Health Care Research Center, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
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Department of Psychology, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 02071 Albacete, Spain
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Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 45600 Talavera de la Reina, Toledo, Spain
5
Faculty of Education, University of Castilla-La Mancha, 16071 Cuenca, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093033
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 17 April 2020 / Accepted: 22 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Family Determinants of Adolescent Adjustment)
Despite the benefits of engaging in physical activity during their leisure time, children do not meet the recommendations on physical activity. Following the socio-ecological model as a theoretical framework, the aim of this study was to determine the barriers and facilitators that influence physical activity participation in children’s leisure time. Data collection was conducted through focus groups and individual drawings in a sample of 98 eight- to eleven-year-olds from six schools in Cuenca (Spain). Following the socio-ecological model, individual characteristics (age and sex), as well as the microsystem (parents and friends), mesosystem (timing and out-of-school schedule) and exosystem (safety and weather) influence physical activity participation. The relationships between these levels of the socio-ecological model reveal that opportunities for leisure physical activity are determined by children’s schedules. This schedule is negotiated by the family and is influenced by parents’ worries and necessities. This is the main barrier to physical activity participation due to the creation of more restrictive, sedentary schedules, especially for girls. Our results show the elements required to develop successful strategies to increase physical activity opportunities, namely, focusing on giving children the opportunity to choose activities, raising parents’ awareness of the importance of physical activity and improving the perceived safety of parks, taking into consideration the gender perspective. View Full-Text
Keywords: focus groups; children; preadolescents; family adjustment; physical activity; qualitative research focus groups; children; preadolescents; family adjustment; physical activity; qualitative research
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Andrés, M.; Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, R.; Rodríguez-Martín, B.; Pardo-Guijarro, M.J.; Garrido-Miguel, M.; Martínez-Vizcaíno, V. Barriers and Facilitators to Leisure Physical Activity in Children: A Qualitative Approach Using the Socio-Ecological Model. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3033. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093033

AMA Style

Martínez-Andrés M, Bartolomé-Gutiérrez R, Rodríguez-Martín B, Pardo-Guijarro MJ, Garrido-Miguel M, Martínez-Vizcaíno V. Barriers and Facilitators to Leisure Physical Activity in Children: A Qualitative Approach Using the Socio-Ecological Model. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(9):3033. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093033

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-Andrés, María, Raquel Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Beatriz Rodríguez-Martín, María J. Pardo-Guijarro, Miriam Garrido-Miguel, and Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno. 2020. "Barriers and Facilitators to Leisure Physical Activity in Children: A Qualitative Approach Using the Socio-Ecological Model" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17, no. 9: 3033. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph17093033

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