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Article

Differences in Visuospatial Expertise between Skeet Shooting Athletes and Non-Athletes

1
ISEC Lisboa—Instituto de Educação e Ciência de Lisboa, 1750-179 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Faculty of Biomedical and Health Science, Universidad Europea de Madrid, 28670 Madrid, Spain
3
Department of Optometry and Vision, Faculty of Optics and Optometry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28037 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Michael Keiner and Paul B. Tchounwou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8147; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158147
Received: 3 July 2021 / Revised: 26 July 2021 / Accepted: 29 July 2021 / Published: 31 July 2021
Background: Sports vision is a specialisation of optometry whose objective is to improve and preserve visual function to increase sports performance. The main objective of the present study was to compare the visual expertise of non-athletes to skeet shooting athletes. Methods: Participants underwent an optometric assessment in which all those with severe deviations from normal vision, after compensating for visual abnormalities, were eliminated. After that, the following six visuospatial components were measured: hand–eye coordination, peripheral awareness, fixation disparity, saccadic eye movements, speed of recognition and visual memory. To measure the aforementioned components, the following tests were used: directional arrows, similar and different characters, the dichromatic disparity test, character marking, a tachistoscopic test and tic-tac-toe using COI-vision software. Results: Skeet shooting athletes performed significatively better (p ≤ 0.05) in two out of the six tests: hand–eye coordination and visual memory. Conclusions: Although this study does not support the theory that athletes—in this case, skeet shooting athletes—perform significantly better in most components of the visuospatial tests, visual memory and hand–eye coordination are exceptions. To be more accurate in distinguishing between athletes and non-athletes, specific testing methods that can be used by a wide variety of disciplines should be developed. Training the weakest aspects of athletes can improve their sports performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual performance; sports vision; visuospatial expertise visual performance; sports vision; visuospatial expertise
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nascimento, H.; Alvarez-Peregrina, C.; Martinez-Perez, C.; Sánchez-Tena, M.Á. Differences in Visuospatial Expertise between Skeet Shooting Athletes and Non-Athletes. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 8147. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158147

AMA Style

Nascimento H, Alvarez-Peregrina C, Martinez-Perez C, Sánchez-Tena MÁ. Differences in Visuospatial Expertise between Skeet Shooting Athletes and Non-Athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(15):8147. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158147

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nascimento, Henrique, Cristina Alvarez-Peregrina, Clara Martinez-Perez, and Miguel Á. Sánchez-Tena 2021. "Differences in Visuospatial Expertise between Skeet Shooting Athletes and Non-Athletes" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 15: 8147. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18158147

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