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Review

Is Visual Pedagogy Effective in Improving Cooperation towards Oral Hygiene and Dental Care in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

by 1, 1, 1, 2,3, 2,4,5 and 1,*
1
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Science, University of Milan, Via Beldiletto 1, 20142 Milan, Italy
2
Department of Restorative, Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, University of Bern, Freiburgstrasse 7, 3012 Bern, Switzerland
3
Department of Periodontology and Operative Dentistry, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany
4
Department of Surgery, Microsurgery and Medicine Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Sassari, Viale San Pietro 3/c, 07100 Sassari, Italy
5
School of Dentistry, Sechenov University, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 789; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020789
Received: 7 December 2020 / Revised: 12 January 2021 / Accepted: 14 January 2021 / Published: 18 January 2021
Visual pedagogy has emerged as a new approach in improving dental care in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This paper aimed to evaluate and assess the scientific evidence on the use of visual pedagogy in improving oral hygiene skills and cooperation during dental care in children with ASDs. The review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO Register (CRD42020183030). Prospective clinical studies, randomized trials, interruptive case series, before and after comparison studies, and cross-sectional studies following the PRISMA guideline were searched in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar using ad hoc prepared search strings. The search identified 379 papers, of which 342 were excluded after title and abstract evaluation, and 37 full-text papers were analyzed. An additional four papers were added after consulting reference lists. Eighteen papers were disregarded; 23 were finally included, and their potential bias was assessed using ROB-2 and ROBINS-I tools. The wide heterogenicity of the studies included does not allow for conclusive evidence on the effectiveness of visual pedagogy in oral hygiene skills and dental care. Nevertheless, a significant and unilateral tendency of the overall outcomes was found, suggesting that visual pedagogy supports ASD children in improving both oral hygiene skills and cooperation during dental care. View Full-Text
Keywords: visual pedagogy; autism spectrum disorders; dental setting; oral hygiene; dental care visual pedagogy; autism spectrum disorders; dental setting; oral hygiene; dental care
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MDPI and ACS Style

Balian, A.; Cirio, S.; Salerno, C.; Wolf, T.G.; Campus, G.; Cagetti, M.G. Is Visual Pedagogy Effective in Improving Cooperation towards Oral Hygiene and Dental Care in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020789

AMA Style

Balian A, Cirio S, Salerno C, Wolf TG, Campus G, Cagetti MG. Is Visual Pedagogy Effective in Improving Cooperation towards Oral Hygiene and Dental Care in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(2):789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020789

Chicago/Turabian Style

Balian, Araxi, Silvia Cirio, Claudia Salerno, Thomas G. Wolf, Guglielmo Campus, and Maria G. Cagetti 2021. "Is Visual Pedagogy Effective in Improving Cooperation towards Oral Hygiene and Dental Care in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 2: 789. https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020789

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