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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 18, Issue 2 (January-2 2021) – 487 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Climate change is a significant public health issue with changing weather patterns and frequency of extreme weather events as a result of climate change contributing to changes in infectious disease transmission patterns. Weather variability is associated with variations in transmission rates of infectious diseases through mechanisms including changes in host innate immunity, human behaviours and changes in transmission due to altered virus survival when airborne and on surfaces. Understanding the impact of weather variability is particularly relevant during the current COVID-19 pandemic, which first emerged in December 2019 and has since spread globally, causing significant health, economic and social consequences. This review summarises and analyses the association between weather factors and COVID-19 incidence in the COVID-19 pandemic. View this paper.
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Article
The Effect of a Personalized Oral Health Education Program on Periodontal Health in an At-Risk Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 846; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020846 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
While periodontal disease is associated with many risk factors, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities experience the highest disease burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a personalized oral health education program, in combination with routine dental treatment, in participants from [...] Read more.
While periodontal disease is associated with many risk factors, socioeconomically disadvantaged communities experience the highest disease burden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a personalized oral health education program, in combination with routine dental treatment, in participants from a low socioeconomic community. We used a randomized, controlled, examiner-blinded clinical trial. A total of 579 participants (aged 18–60 years) were randomly grouped: the intervention group (n = 292) received a personalized oral health education program in combination with routine dental care and the control group (n = 287) received routine dental care. All participants were assessed for improvement in oral health care behaviors, dental plaque, and periodontal status at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. We found a significant drop (p < 0.001) in the plaque indices, Periodontal Probing Depths (PPD) and Bleeding on Probing (BOP) between baseline and the 12-month follow-up for both groups. For BOP, the number of sites positive was significantly different between baseline and the 24-month follow-up (p = 0.037). No differences were found between the two groups for any evaluated clinical outcome. The personalized oral health education program used in the current study did not appear to add significant improvement to clinical outcomes of periodontal health compared with routine restorative dental care per se. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Health)
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Article
Sustainable Choices and Behaviors among Eco-Friendly Museum Travelers: Exploring the Drivers of Sacrifice, Visit, Pay, and WOM Intentions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 845; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020845 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1136
Abstract
This research developed a sturdy theoretical framework that offers a better comprehension regarding customer approach intentions for eco-friendly museum products. Using a quantitative process, the apparent role of ecological value, connectedness to nature, social pressure, pro-environmental reputation was explored. Data quality testing demonstrated [...] Read more.
This research developed a sturdy theoretical framework that offers a better comprehension regarding customer approach intentions for eco-friendly museum products. Using a quantitative process, the apparent role of ecological value, connectedness to nature, social pressure, pro-environmental reputation was explored. Data quality testing demonstrated the validity of the construct measures. The critical mediating nature of customer-product relationship quality and feeling of pride was unveiled by conducting a structural analysis. In addition, the feeling of pride was a prominent factor determining sacrifice, visit, pay, and word of mouth (WOM) intentions. Social pressure played a major role in building relationship quality, whereas pro-environmental reputation was a key contributor to increase the feeling of pride. The model contained a strong prediction power for intentions. Results of this study contribute to enriching the extant knowledge regarding customer pro-environmental decision-making process, which is helpful for an eco-friendly museum and its success. Full article
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Article
Cadmium, Lead, Copper, Zinc, and Iron Concentration Patterns in Three Marine Fish Species from Two Different Mining Sites inside the Gulf of California, Mexico
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 844; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020844 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1098
Abstract
In the Gulf of California; mineral deposits have contributed to high metal contents in coastal environments. This study examined cadmium; lead; copper; zinc; and iron contents in three fish species; Kyphosus vaigiensis (herbivore), Stegastes rectifraenum (omnivore), and Balistes polylepis (carnivore) at two mining [...] Read more.
In the Gulf of California; mineral deposits have contributed to high metal contents in coastal environments. This study examined cadmium; lead; copper; zinc; and iron contents in three fish species; Kyphosus vaigiensis (herbivore), Stegastes rectifraenum (omnivore), and Balistes polylepis (carnivore) at two mining sites. Metal concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes were estimated using mass spectrophotometry. Also, we assessed the risk to human health from the consumption of these three species based on permissible limits; although only two of them (Kyphosus and Balistes) are consumed as food. Metal concentrations differed among fish species; except for iron. The highest concentrations of metals were not always recorded in the species at the highest trophic level; i.e., Balistes. The highest concentrations (dry weight) recorded were cadmium (0.21 ± 0.03 µg g−1) and lead (1.67 ± 0.26 µg g−1), in S. rectifraenum; copper (1.60 ± 0.49 µg g−1) and zinc (67.30 ± 8.79 µg g−1), in B. polylepis; and iron (27.06 ± 2.58 µg g−1), in K. vaigiensis. Our findings show that each element accumulates differently in particular marine organisms; depending on the physiology of the species and the biogeochemistry of its habitat; which in turn is affected by the anthropogenic activities in adjacent areas. No risk of heavy metals toxicity is expected from the human consumption of the species and sites studied Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation and Health Impact of Toxic Metals Pollution)
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Article
Effects of an African Circle Dance Programme on Internally Displaced Persons with Depressive Symptoms: A Quasi-Experimental Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 843; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020843 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
Background: Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are people who have been forced to flee their homes due to disasters. Depressive symptoms, at over 31–67%, are prevalent in IDPs in Africa. Despite the evidence for the benefits of the promotion of dance interventions on [...] Read more.
Background: Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) are people who have been forced to flee their homes due to disasters. Depressive symptoms, at over 31–67%, are prevalent in IDPs in Africa. Despite the evidence for the benefits of the promotion of dance interventions on psychological health, supporting information is needed to outline the benefits of an African Circle Dance (ACD) intervention for IDPs in Africa. Methods: A quasi-experimental design (pre-/post-test) was employed. Two IDP camps were randomized into the intervention group (psychoeducation and ACD intervention) and the control group (psychoeducation). Adults aged ≥18 years, living in an IDP camp, able to perform brisk walking, and who scored ≥10 on a depressive symptoms subscale were recruited. The intervention group received an 8-week ACD dance intervention and two 1-h psychoeducation sessions on stress management; the controls only received the psychoeducation sessions. Outcomes were depressive symptoms, stress, and anxiety. Data were collected at baseline (T0), immediately after the intervention at week 8 (T1), and at week 12 (T2) at the post-intervention and follow-up session. A generalized estimating equation was used to test the effects of the ACD intervention, with a 0.05 significance level. Results: 198 IDPs completed the study (ncontrol = 98; nintervention = 100). The intervention group reported significantly greater improvements in depressive symptoms (v = 0.33, p < 0.001) and stress (v = 0.15, 0.008) than did the control group. Conclusions: ACD could be a valuable complementary intervention in health promotion but more research is needed. Full article
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Article
Medical Students and COVID-19: Knowledge, Preventive Behaviors, and Risk Perception
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 842; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020842 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1757
Abstract
Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an international public health threat. This study aimed to evaluate COVID-19-related knowledge, preventive behaviors, and risk perception among Saudi Arabian medical students and interns. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among fourth- and fifth-year [...] Read more.
Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is an international public health threat. This study aimed to evaluate COVID-19-related knowledge, preventive behaviors, and risk perception among Saudi Arabian medical students and interns. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among fourth- and fifth-year medical students and interns between June and August 2020 at three colleges of medicine in Qassim Region, Saudi Arabia. A previously validated questionnaire was distributed as an online survey. Results: The total mean knowledge score was 12.5/15 points; 83.9% achieved a high score. The mean score of self-reported preventive behavior was 8.40; 94.1% achieved a high score. The overall mean risk perception score was 5.34/8 points; 31.6% achieved a high score. Conclusion: Medical students assessed in this study displayed sufficient knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding the COVID-19 pandemic and an average level of risk perception. Lower scores by younger medical students suggest that they must improve their COVID-19 knowledge and risk perception, as they are a potential source of health information in their communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Infectious Disease Epidemiology)
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Article
The Utilization of Protective Face Masks among Polish Healthcare Workers during COVID-19 Pandemic: Do We Pass the Exam?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 841; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020841 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1291
Abstract
Relevant personal protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic include face masks, possibly decreasing the risk of infection among the general population and healthcare workers (HCW) if utilized properly. The aim of the study was to assess whether different Polish HCW utilize face masks [...] Read more.
Relevant personal protective measures during the COVID-19 pandemic include face masks, possibly decreasing the risk of infection among the general population and healthcare workers (HCW) if utilized properly. The aim of the study was to assess whether different Polish HCW utilize face masks according to the 2020 World Health Organization guidance (WHO) criteria. This cross-sectional study included 1156 respondents who participated in an internet survey evaluating mask-related behaviors. All the WHO criteria were complied with by 1.4% of participants, regardless of medical profession, specialty or place of employment. HCW mostly adhered to criterion 1 (C1; strict covering of the face and mouth with the mask; 90.8%), C4 (washing/disinfecting the hands after touching/taking off the mask; 49%) and C3 (taking off the mask properly without touching the anterior surface; 43.4%), whereas C2 (avoidance of touching the mask with hands) was complied with least commonly (6.8%). HCW with mask-induced itch (31.6%) complied to C2 less often (odds ratio 0.53; p = 0.01). The study reveals that Polish HCW rarely adhere to all the 2020 WHO guidance criteria on the use of masks, whereas the adherence to particular criteria is variable and may be associated with the presence of skin-related conditions and other factors. Better compliance with the recommendations in the future is necessary to increase personal safety of HCW and prevent the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Outbreak of a Novel Coronavirus: A Global Health Threat)
Article
Evolution of Malaria Incidence in Five Health Districts, in the Context of the Scaling up of Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention, 2016 to 2018, in Mali
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 840; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020840 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 942
Abstract
Context: In Mali, malaria transmission is seasonal, exposing children to high morbidity and mortality. A preventative strategy called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is being implemented, consisting of the distribution of drugs at monthly intervals for up to 4 months to children between 3 [...] Read more.
Context: In Mali, malaria transmission is seasonal, exposing children to high morbidity and mortality. A preventative strategy called Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention (SMC) is being implemented, consisting of the distribution of drugs at monthly intervals for up to 4 months to children between 3 and 59 months of age during the period of the year when malaria is most prevalent. This study aimed to analyze the evolution of the incidence of malaria in the general population of the health districts of Kati, Kadiolo, Sikasso, Yorosso, and Tominian in the context of SMC implementation. Methods: This is a transversal study analyzing the routine malaria data and meteorological data of Nasa Giovanni from 2016 to 2018. General Additive Model (GAM) analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between malaria incidence and meteorological factors. Results: From 2016 to 2018, the evolution of the overall incidence in all the study districts was positively associated with the relative humidity, rainfall, and minimum temperature components. The average monthly incidence and the relative humidity varied according to the health district, and the average temperature and rainfall were similar. A decrease in incidence was observed in children under five years old in 2017 and 2018 compared to 2016. Conclusion: A decrease in the incidence of malaria was observed after the SMC rounds. SMC should be applied at optimal periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geo-Epidemiology of Malaria)
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Article
Time Distances to Residential Food Amenities and Daily Walking Duration: A Cross-Sectional Study in Two Low Tier Chinese Cities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 839; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020839 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Recent studies indicate the accepted concept of using land-use mix (LUM) to promote physical activity is ineffective and even counteractive in the Chinese context. Before considering LUM as a whole, different amenity types need to be respectively analyzed in relation to various functions [...] Read more.
Recent studies indicate the accepted concept of using land-use mix (LUM) to promote physical activity is ineffective and even counteractive in the Chinese context. Before considering LUM as a whole, different amenity types need to be respectively analyzed in relation to various functions and demands. This study aims to examine the specific associations between food-related amenities and perceived daily walking duration (WD) in small Chinese cities. Two interviewer-administered questionnaire surveys (n = 354) were conducted in Yuncheng and Suihua between 2017 and 2018. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of WD with seven different categories of food outlet at three levels of walking distance. The associations were further explored by food environment diversity and through two age groups. With the exception of café/tea house, the other six food outlets were positively associated with WD. After adjusting for socioeconomic variables, the associations of grocery store and supermarket weakened. Higher levels of food environment diversity were associated with a longer WD. Among the age groups, food outlets were more associated with older adults’ WD. This novel quantitative study suggests that increasing the number and heterogeneity of food-related amenities (including mobile street vendors) within a neighborhood can enhance physical activity in small Chinese cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Review
Obesity Prevention within the Early Childhood Education and Care Setting: A Systematic Review of Dietary Behavior and Physical Activity Policies and Guidelines in High Income Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 838; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020838 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1829
Abstract
As a strategy for early childhood obesity prevention, a variety of dietary behavior and physical activity policies and guidelines published by leading health agencies and early childhood education and care (ECEC) licensing and accreditation bodies exist. Given the potential diversity in recommendations from [...] Read more.
As a strategy for early childhood obesity prevention, a variety of dietary behavior and physical activity policies and guidelines published by leading health agencies and early childhood education and care (ECEC) licensing and accreditation bodies exist. Given the potential diversity in recommendations from these policies, this narrative review sought to synthesize, appraise and describe the various policies and guidelines made by organizational and professional bodies to highlight consistent recommendations and identify opportunities to strengthen such policies. An electronic bibliographic search of seven online databases and grey literature sources was undertaken. Records were included if they were policies or guidelines with specific recommendations addressing dietary behavior and/or physical activity practice implementation within the ECEC setting; included children aged >12 months and <6 years and were developed for high income countries. Recommended dietary behavior and physical activity policies and practices were synthesized into broad themes using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity framework, and the quality of included guidelines appraised. Our search identified 38 eligible publications mostly from the US and Australia. Identified guidelines were largely consistent in their recommendation and frequently addressed the physical and sociocultural environment and were well-aligned with research evidence. Broader consideration of policy and economic environments may be needed to increase the impact of such policies and guidelines within the ECEC setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Review Papers in Children’s Health)
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Commentary
A Commentary on Blue Zones®: A Critical Review of Age-Friendly Environments in the 21st Century and Beyond
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 837; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020837 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
This paper explores the intersection of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) concepts of age-friendly communities and The Blue Zones® checklists and how the potential of integrating the two frameworks for the development of a contemporary framework can address the current gaps in [...] Read more.
This paper explores the intersection of the World Health Organization’s (WHO) concepts of age-friendly communities and The Blue Zones® checklists and how the potential of integrating the two frameworks for the development of a contemporary framework can address the current gaps in the literature as well as consider the inclusion of technology and environmental press. The commentary presented here sets out initial thoughts and explorations that have the potential to impact societies on a global scale and provides recommendations for a roadmap to consider new ways to think about the impact of health and wellbeing of older adults and their families. Additionally, this paper highlights both the strengths and the weaknesses of the aforementioned checklists and frameworks by examining the literature including the WHO age-friendly framework, the smart age-friendly ecosystem (SAfE) framework and the Blue Zones® checklists. We argue that gaps exist in the current literature and take a critical approach as a way to be inclusive of technology and the environments in which older adults live. This commentary contributes to the fields of gerontology, gerontechnology, anthropology, and geography, because we are proposing a roadmap which sets out the need for future work which requires multi- and interdisciplinary research to be conducted for the respective checklists to evolve. Full article
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Article
The Significant Association between Health Examination Results and Population Health: A Cross-Sectional Ecological Study Using a Nation-Wide Health Checkup Database in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 836; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020836 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 941
Abstract
In Japan, population health with life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as indicators varies across the 47 prefectures (administrative regions). This study investigates how health examination results, including attitude toward improving life habits, are associated with population health. The association between [...] Read more.
In Japan, population health with life expectancy (LE) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) as indicators varies across the 47 prefectures (administrative regions). This study investigates how health examination results, including attitude toward improving life habits, are associated with population health. The association between health checkup variables and summary population health outcomes (i.e., life expectancy and healthy life expectancy) was investigated using a cross-sectional ecological design with prefectures as the unit of analysis. The medical records, aggregated by prefecture, gender, and age in the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB) Open Data Japan, were used as health checkup variables. Body weight, blood pressure, liver enzymes, drinking habits, smoking habits, diabetes, serum lipids, and answers to questions regarding attitude toward improving health habits were significantly correlated to population health outcomes. Multiple regression analysis also revealed significant influence of these variables on population health. This study highlights that health examination results, including attitude toward improving health habits, are positively associated with population health. Consequently, implementing measures to improve health habits in response to the examination results could help the population maintain a healthy life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
Article
Toothpastes with Enzymes Support Gum Health and Reduce Plaque Formation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 835; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020835 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Enzymes in toothpastes can support host immune responses, and thus maintain oral health. This study aimed to investigate gingival health and the plaque-reducing effects of enzyme-containing toothpastes. A laboratory study tested the antimicrobial potential of different enzyme-containing toothpaste formulations. Two promising formulations (enzyme-containing [...] Read more.
Enzymes in toothpastes can support host immune responses, and thus maintain oral health. This study aimed to investigate gingival health and the plaque-reducing effects of enzyme-containing toothpastes. A laboratory study tested the antimicrobial potential of different enzyme-containing toothpaste formulations. Two promising formulations (enzyme-containing toothpastes with glucose oxidase and D-glucose with (C+) and without Citrox (C−) Citrox) were investigated in a clinical crossover trial (two slurries: sodium lauryl sulfate-containing (SLS), a toothpaste without SLS (reference), and water). Subjects (n = 20) abstained from toothbrushing for four days and rinsed with a toothpaste slurry. Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices (PI) were measured. A mixed linear model was used to statistically compare the slurries with respect to BOP and PI change. The in vitro bacterial growth-inhibiting evaluation showed the best results for SLS, followed by C+ and C−. The change in BOP and PI exhibited statistically significant differences to water rinsing (BOP; PI changes in % points (difference of the baseline and post-rinse values: water = 8.8%; 90.0%; C+ = −1.4%; 80.4%; SLS = 1.5%; 72.1%; reference = 0.8%; 77.5%; C− = −1.8%; 75.1%). All slurries exhibited anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque effects, resulting in a prophylactic benefit for limited-access regions during brushing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral and Dental Health)
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Article
The Role of Research in Guiding Treatment for Women’s Health: A Qualitative Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine Acupuncturists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 834; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020834 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1845
Abstract
Background: Surveys of acupuncture practitioners worldwide have shown an increase in the use of acupuncture to treat women’s health conditions over the last ten years. Published studies have explored the effectiveness of acupuncture for various conditions such as period pain, fertility, and labor [...] Read more.
Background: Surveys of acupuncture practitioners worldwide have shown an increase in the use of acupuncture to treat women’s health conditions over the last ten years. Published studies have explored the effectiveness of acupuncture for various conditions such as period pain, fertility, and labor induction. However, it is unclear what role, if any, peer-reviewed research plays in guiding practice. Methods: Acupuncturists with a significant women’s health caseload were interviewed online in three small groups to explore factors that contribute to acupuncturists’ clinical decision made around treatment approaches and research. Results: Eleven practitioners participated in the focus groups. The overarching theme that emerged was one of ‘Not mainstream but a stream.’ This captured two themes relating to acupuncture as a distinct practice: ‘working with what you’ve got’ as well as ‘finding the right lens’, illustrating practitioners’ perception of research needing to be more relevant to clinical practice. Conclusions: Acupuncture practitioners treating women’s health conditions reported a disconnect between their clinical practice and the design of clinical trials, predominantly due to what they perceived as a lack of individualization of treatment. Case histories were popular as a learning tool and could be used to support increasing research literacy. Full article
Article
A Case Study on Curling Stone and Sweeping Effect According to Sweeping Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 833; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020833 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 885
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to use the same ice temperature and air temperature as the Pyeongchang Curling Stadium by using an Ice Chamber. Then, launch the stone at the same speed, and move according to the sweeping conditions (perpendicular to the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to use the same ice temperature and air temperature as the Pyeongchang Curling Stadium by using an Ice Chamber. Then, launch the stone at the same speed, and move according to the sweeping conditions (perpendicular to the axis of motion, along the axis of motion) of male and female elite curlers. The aim is to provide sports science information required for curling athletes by analyzing the distance of the stone, the change in the speed of a moved stone, the change in broom acceleration, and athletes’ muscle activity. The results of experiments conducted on four male and four elite female curlers are as follows. Under gender, the stone’s movement distance was long after the sweeping of male athletes, and the speed of the stone was not different according to the conditions. The broom’s acceleration did not show a difference in both the sweeping condition and the athlete’s gender condition, and the muscle activity did not show a significant difference in both the sweeping condition and the gender condition. In summary, it is thought that male athletes moved the stone farther by raising the ice surface temperature by vertical load than female athletes. Also, there was no statistically significant difference in muscle activity results, but it was found that there was a specific pattern of muscle activity in the pushing and pulling motions during the sweeping of male and female athletes. It is expected to be used as primary data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease)
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Article
Changes in the Impacts of Topographic Factors, Soil Texture, and Cropping Systems on Topsoil Chemical Properties in the Mountainous Areas of the Subtropical Monsoon Region from 2007 to 2017: A Case Study in Hefeng, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 832; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020832 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Understanding the spatial pattern of soil chemical properties (SCPs) together with topological factors and soil management practices is essential for land management. This study examines the spatial changes in soil chemical properties and their impact on China’s subtropical mountainous areas. In 2007 and [...] Read more.
Understanding the spatial pattern of soil chemical properties (SCPs) together with topological factors and soil management practices is essential for land management. This study examines the spatial changes in soil chemical properties and their impact on China’s subtropical mountainous areas. In 2007 and 2017, 290 and 200 soil samples, respectively, were collected in Hefeng County, a mountainous county in central China. We used descriptive statistics and geostatistical methods, including ANOVA, semivariance, Moran’s I, and fractal dimensions, to analyze the characteristics and spatial autocorrelation changes in soil organic matter (OM), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), and pH value from 2007 to 2017. We explored the relationship between each SCP and the relationship between SCPs with topographic parameters, soil texture, and cropping systems. The results show that the mean value of soil OM, AP, AK, and pH in Hefeng increased from 2007 to 2017. The spatial variation and spatial dependency of each SCP in 2007, excluding AP and AK in 2007, were higher than in 2017. The soil in areas with high topographic relief, profile curvature, and planform curvature had less AP, AK, and pH. Soil at higher elevation had lower OM (r = −0.197, p < 0.01; r = −0.334, p < 0.01) and AP (r = −0.043, p < 0.05; r = −0.121, p < 0.05) and higher AK (r = −0.305, p < 0.01; r = 0.408, p < 0.01) in 2007 and 2017. Soil OM and AK in 2007 were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with soil texture (p < 0.05). In contrast, oil AP and soil pH in 2007 and all SCPs in 2017 were poorly correlated with soil texture. The cropping systems played an important role in affecting all SCPs in 2007 (p < 0.01), while they only significantly affected AK in 2017 (p < 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that both topological factors, that is, the changes in cropping management and the changes in acid rain, impact soil chemical properties. The local government should place more focus on reducing soil acid amounts, soil AP content, and soil erosion by improving water conservancy facilities. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Child-Related Factors on Caregiver Perceptions of Their Child’s Sustained Participation in a Community Football Program: A Study of Children with and without Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 831; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020831 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1005
Abstract
This study evaluated the influence of activity preference and involvement on season completion in a community-based football program for children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. Caregivers (n = 1428) of 1529 children aged 4 to 17 (M = 7.27, SD = [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the influence of activity preference and involvement on season completion in a community-based football program for children with and without neurodevelopmental disorders. Caregivers (n = 1428) of 1529 children aged 4 to 17 (M = 7.27, SD = 1.85), with (n = 175) and without (n = 1354) neurodevelopmental disorders who were currently participating or had previously participated in a group-based NAB AFL Auskick football program completed an online survey. The survey collected information on their child’s completion of any attempted seasons of the football program, level of involvement during the sessions and preference for football over other sports and activities. Eighty percent of children with a neurodevelopmental diagnosis had completed all seasons of Auskick, compared with 93% of children without a neurodevelopmental diagnosis. Results indicated that children with neurodevelopmental disorders (n = 135) were 3.71 times less likely to complete a football season than their typically developing peers (n = 903). Higher levels of involvement during football sessions and greater preference for football were linked to a higher football season completion rate, irrespective of neurodevelopmental disability diagnosis. This study highlights the influence of child-related factors, in particular, preference and involvement, on children’s sustained participation in community football programs, regardless of neurodevelopmental disability status. Full article
Review
Deploying Spatial Data for Coastal Community Resilience: A Review from the Managerial Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 830; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020830 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 976
Abstract
The use of spatial data for coastal community resilience applications has diversified as a consequence of the increasing availability of data, and extensive development in data processing. However, the true value of spatial data is not fully exploited as a result of lacking [...] Read more.
The use of spatial data for coastal community resilience applications has diversified as a consequence of the increasing availability of data, and extensive development in data processing. However, the true value of spatial data is not fully exploited as a result of lacking scientific managerial models that incorporate spatial data into decision-making. This article synthesizes the cross-disciplinary literature review on deploying spatial data for coastal community resilience from the managerial perspective. It systematically reviews research addressing the topic of deploying spatial data for coastal resilience operations from the earliest available to 1999. The review uses 142 studies to address three research questions: (1) What kind of data can be obtained for coastal resilience situational awareness? (2) What outcomes have spatial data attributed to coastal resilience applications? and (3) What are the missing pieces (gaps) in connecting the spatial data with coastal resilience applications? In addressing these research questions, the authors review articles based on three dimensions including the availability of spatial data, the availability of applications, and limitations. Based on the findings of the analysis, the authors conclude that the managerial perspective of deploying spatial data in coastal hazards are understudies, and outline problem formulation, mission prioritization, and information salience as an agenda for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Article
Pilot Study to Develop and Test Palliative Care Quality Indicators for Nursing Homes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 829; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020829 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1132
Abstract
An increasingly frail population in nursing homes accentuates the need for high quality care at the end of life and better access to palliative care in this context. Implementation of palliative care and its outcomes can be monitored by using quality indicators. Therefore, [...] Read more.
An increasingly frail population in nursing homes accentuates the need for high quality care at the end of life and better access to palliative care in this context. Implementation of palliative care and its outcomes can be monitored by using quality indicators. Therefore, we developed a quality indicator set for palliative care in nursing homes and a tailored measurement procedure while using a mixed-methods design. We developed the instrument in three phases: (1) literature search, (2) interviews with experts, and (3) indicator and measurement selection by expert consensus (RAND/UCLA). Second, we pilot tested and evaluated the instrument in nine nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. After identifying 26 indicators in the literature and expert interviews, 19 of them were selected through expert consensus. Setting-specific themes were advance care planning, autonomy, and communication with family. The quantitative and qualitative analyses showed that the indicators were measurable, had good preliminary face validity and discriminative power, and were considered to be useful in terms of quality monitoring according to the caregivers. The quality indicators can be used in a large implementation study and process evaluation in order to achieve continuous monitoring of the access to palliative care for all of the residents in nursing homes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Quality of Care in Long-Term Care Settings)
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Review
Effects of Combined Exercise and Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet Interventions on Waist Circumference and Triglycerides in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 828; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020828 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2118
Abstract
(1) Background: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of combined exercise and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet interventions (CELCKD) for overweight and obese individuals. (2) Methods: Relevant studies were searched by using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of combined exercise and low carbohydrate ketogenic diet interventions (CELCKD) for overweight and obese individuals. (2) Methods: Relevant studies were searched by using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases up to October 2020. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria: Inclusion criteria were reporting effects of the CELCKD for overweight and obese individuals from randomized controlled trials. Studies that did not match the inclusion criteria were excluded. The methods for CELCKD and outcomes of selected studies were extracted. The effect sizes for interventions that included cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, fasting glucose, and lipid profiles were calculated by using the standardized mean difference statistic. (3) Results: A total of seven studies and 278 overweight and obese individuals were included. The average intervention of selected studies consisted of moderate to vigorous intensity, 4 times per week for 9.2 weeks. Participating in CELCKD interventions was decreased triglycerides (d = −0.34, CI; −0.68–−0.01, p = 0.04) and waist circumference (d = −0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI]; −1.28–−1.20, p = 0.01), while cardiovascular fitness, body composition, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were not statistically different after the interventions. No adverse side effects were reported. (4) Conclusions: Participation in interventions by overweight and obese individuals had beneficial effects including decreased waist circumference and triglycerides. Longer term intervention studies with homogenous control groups may be needed. Full article
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Article
No Interaction Effect between Interleukin-6 Polymorphisms and Acid Ash Diet with Bone Resorption Marker in Postmenopausal Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 827; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020827 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Background: Evidence is growing that a high-acid diet might accelerate the rate of bone loss, and gene polymorphisms such as Interleukin 6 (IL6) -174G/C and -572G/C are related to bone deterioration. However, no study of the interaction between diet and IL6 [...] Read more.
Background: Evidence is growing that a high-acid diet might accelerate the rate of bone loss, and gene polymorphisms such as Interleukin 6 (IL6) -174G/C and -572G/C are related to bone deterioration. However, no study of the interaction between diet and IL6 polymorphisms has been conducted among Asians. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine whether IL6 gene polymorphisms modified the association between dietary acidity and the rate of bone resorption. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 203 postmenopausal women (age ranged from 51 to 85 years old) in community settings. The dietary intakes of the participants were assessed using a validated interviewer-administered semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), while dietary acid load (DAL) was estimated using net endogenous acid production (NEAP). Agena® MassARRAY genotyping analysis and serum collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX1) were used to identify the IL6 genotype and as a bone resorption marker, respectively. The interactions between diet and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed using linear regressions. Results: A total of 203 healthy postmenopausal women aged between 51 and 85 years participated in this study. The mean BMI of the participants was 24.3 kg/m2. In IL6 -174 G/C, all the participants carried the GG genotype, while the C allele was absent. Approximately 40% of the participants had a high dietary acid load. Dietary acid load (B = 0.15, p = 0.031) and the IL6 -572 CC genotype group (B = 0.14, p = 0.044) were positively associated with a higher bone resorption. However, there was no moderating effect of the IL6 genetic polymorphism on the relationship between and acid ash diet and bone resorption markers among the postmenopausal women (p = 0.79). Conclusion: High consumption of an acid ash diet and the IL6 -572 C allele seem to attribute to high bone resorption among postmenopausal women. However, our finding does not support the interaction effect of dietary acidity and IL6 (-174G/C and -572G/C) polymorphisms on the rate of bone resorption. Taken together, these results have given scientific research other candidate genes to focus on which may interact with DAL on bone resorption, to enhance planning for preventing or delaying the onset of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Women's Health)
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Review
The Politics of LGBT+ Health Inequality: Conclusions from a UK Scoping Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 826; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020826 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
This scoping review of UK evidence aimed to describe what is known about Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans (LGBT+) health inequalities in relation to cancer, mental health, and palliative care to inform research, policy and public health interventions. Using a scoping review methodology, [...] Read more.
This scoping review of UK evidence aimed to describe what is known about Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Trans (LGBT+) health inequalities in relation to cancer, mental health, and palliative care to inform research, policy and public health interventions. Using a scoping review methodology, we identified studies from database searches, citation tracking, and expert consultation. The in/exclusion criteria was based on the PICOS framework. The data were charted and then summarised to map the theoretical approaches and the main types of evidence and identify knowledge gaps. In total, 279 articles were screened and 83 were included in the final review. We found that there is limited UK research examining LGBT+ health inequality in cancer, mental health and palliative care. We would argue that this thin evidence base is partly due to national policy discussions of LGBT+ health inequality that are framed within a depoliticised ‘it’s getting better’ narrative, and an unwillingness to adequately acknowledge the unjust social and economic relations that produce LGBT+ health inequality. In addition, LGBT+ health inequality is depoliticised by existing public health explanatory theories, models and frameworks that exclude sexual orientation and gender diversity as dimensions of power that interlock with those of socio-economic, race and ethnicity. This is a barrier to developing public health interventions that can successfully tackle LGBT+ health inequality Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Inequalities and Social Support among LGBT + Populations)
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Article
Development of a Community-Based Integrated Service Model of Health and Social Care for Older Adults Living Alone
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 825; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020825 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
The number of elderly people living alone worldwide is increasing, and the responsibility of the state in this context is emerging. This study aimed to develop a community-based integrated service (CBIS) model of health and social care for older adults living alone. The [...] Read more.
The number of elderly people living alone worldwide is increasing, and the responsibility of the state in this context is emerging. This study aimed to develop a community-based integrated service (CBIS) model of health and social care for older adults living alone. The model was designed based on a literature review of previous community care models and per older adults’ health and daily life needs. Thereafter, feedback on the integrated model was taken from older adults living alone by conducting a survey (n = 1023) and focus group interviews, after which the opinions of the Public type Health Management Promotion Council were considered and content validity was confirmed. The model, comprising eight healthcare services and five social care services, was tested on 22 older adults for two weeks to assess its feasibility and preliminary efficiency. Each service included screening, assessment, providing service, evaluation, and quit. Participants rated their overall satisfaction with the services as 9 out of 10. Care navigators reported feeling comforted and discovered their own sense of being while providing the services. We believe that the CBIS model may foster independence among community-dwelling older adults living alone, thereby improving their quality of life through “aging in place”. Full article
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Article
Norepinephrine Infusion in the Emergency Department in Septic Shock Patients: A Retrospective 2-Years Safety Report and Outcome Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 824; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020824 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Hemodynamic optimization during sepsis and septic shock is based on a prompt and large fluid resuscitation strategy associated with early administration of norepinephrine. In our hospital, norepinephrine is administered in the emergency department (ED), within a protocol-guided management context, to reduce norepinephrine infusion [...] Read more.
Hemodynamic optimization during sepsis and septic shock is based on a prompt and large fluid resuscitation strategy associated with early administration of norepinephrine. In our hospital, norepinephrine is administered in the emergency department (ED), within a protocol-guided management context, to reduce norepinephrine infusion timing due to central line insertion. This choice, however, can be associated with side effects. Objectives: We conducted a retrospective analysis regarding the safety of norepinephrine in the ED. We also appraised the association between in-hospital mortality and predefined ED variables and patients’ admission severity scores. Design, settings, and participants: This was a retrospective analysis of electronic sheets of the ED of a tertiary hospital in the North of Italy. Outcomes measure and analysis: Electronic documentation was assessed to identify local and systemic side effects. We considered two subgroups of patients according to the in-hospital clinical paths: (1) those admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU); and (2) those who received a ceiling of care decision. We collected and considered variables related to septic shock treatment in the ED and analyzed their association with in-hospital mortality. Main Results: We considered a two-year period, including 108,033 ED accesses, and ultimately analyzed data from 127 patients. Side effects related to the use of this drug were reported in five (3.9%) patients. Thirty patients (23.6%) were transferred to the ICU from the ED, of whom six (20.0%) died. Twenty-eight patients (22.0%) received a ceiling of care indication, of whom 21 (75.0%) died. Of the 69 (54.3%) finally discharged to either medical or surgical wards, 21 (30.4%) died. ICU admission was the only variable significantly associated to in-hospital mortality in the multivariable analysis [OR (95% CI) = 4.48 (1.52–13.22); p-value = 0.007]. Conclusions: Norepinephrine peripheral infusion in the ED was associated with a low incidence of adverse events requiring discontinuation (3.9%). It could be considered safe within <12 h when a specific line management protocol and pump infusion protocol are adopted. None of the variables related to septic shock management affected in-hospital mortality, except for the patient’s ICU admission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Decompensated Heart Failure)
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Study Protocol
Customized Human Milk Fortification Based on Measured Human Milk Composition to Improve the Quality of Growth in Very Preterm Infants: A Mixed-Cohort Study Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 823; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020823 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
Adequate nutrition of very preterm infants comprises fortification of human milk (HM), which helps to improve their nutrition and health. Standard HM fortification involves a fixed dose of a multi-nutrient HM fortifier, regardless of the composition of HM. This fortification method requires regular [...] Read more.
Adequate nutrition of very preterm infants comprises fortification of human milk (HM), which helps to improve their nutrition and health. Standard HM fortification involves a fixed dose of a multi-nutrient HM fortifier, regardless of the composition of HM. This fortification method requires regular measurements of HM composition and has been suggested to be a more accurate fortification method. This observational study protocol is designed to assess whether the target HM fortification method (contemporary cohort) improves the energy and macronutrient intakes and the quality of growth of very preterm infants, compared with the previously used standard HM fortification (historical cohorts). In the contemporary cohort, a HM multi-nutrient fortifier and modular supplements of protein and fat are used for HM fortification, and the enteral nutrition recommendations of the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition for preterm infants will be considered. For both cohorts, the composition of HM is assessed using the Miris Human Milk analyzer (Uppsala, Sweden). The quality of growth will be assessed by in-hospital weight, length, and head circumference growth velocities and a single measurement of adiposity (fat mass percentage and fat mass index) performed just after discharge, using the air displacement plethysmography method (Pea Pod, Cosmed, Italy). ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT04400396. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimizing Nutrition and Dietary Pattern in Premature Infants)
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Article
Determinants of Residents’ Approach–Avoidance Responses to the Personal Carbon Trading Scheme: An Empirical Analysis of Urban Residents in Eastern China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 822; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020822 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 822
Abstract
The personal carbon trading (PCT) scheme is a policy instrument for reducing downstream carbon emissions and creating a green lifestyle, and a bottleneck hampering its implementation is the behavioral willingness of residents. Due to a pre-existing stimulus-response association, the willingness of residents can [...] Read more.
The personal carbon trading (PCT) scheme is a policy instrument for reducing downstream carbon emissions and creating a green lifestyle, and a bottleneck hampering its implementation is the behavioral willingness of residents. Due to a pre-existing stimulus-response association, the willingness of residents can be intuitively reflected by their approach–avoidance responses. This study theoretically analyzed the mechanisms for influencing residents’ approach–avoidance responses towards the personal carbon trading scheme based on open-ended interviews, and empirically examined the mechanisms by developing rating scales and conducting questionnaire surveys on urban residents in eastern China. Findings showed that residents’ approach–avoidance responses could be negatively affected by their preference for comfort, whereas they were positively impacted by their ecological values, sense of social responsibility, cognition of the behaviors for carbon emission reduction, and cognition of personal carbon trading. In terms of subjective norms, the culture of environmentalism had a positive effect on residents’ responses to PCT scheme, while the culture of consumerism caused a negative impact on their responses. Furthermore, the perceived behavioral controls of residents partially mediated the relationships between their psychological characteristics and approach–avoidance responses. Finally, primary and pivotal suggestions were proposed for nudging Chinese urban residents towards approaching the personal carbon trading scheme, which provide theoretical support and practical guidance for its implementation. Full article
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Article
Big Five Personality Traits, Coping Strategies and Compulsive Buying in Spanish University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 821; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020821 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Personality traits and coping strategies have historically been two key elements in the field of health psychology. It is, therefore, striking that there is no study in the field of compulsive buying that integrates the most generic, decontextualized and stable aspects (traits) with [...] Read more.
Personality traits and coping strategies have historically been two key elements in the field of health psychology. It is, therefore, striking that there is no study in the field of compulsive buying that integrates the most generic, decontextualized and stable aspects (traits) with those having a more marked processual and dynamic nature, which are closer to goal-based views of human nature (coping strategies). Another weakness of the compulsive buying field is that, despite the confirmed growing increase in compulsive buying in the younger age groups, most studies have been conducted with adult samples. Hence, this study seeks to clarify the role of the Big Five domains and different coping strategies in university students’ compulsive buying. The sample consisted of 1093 participants who were classified as either compulsive buyers or non-compulsive buyers. Both groups were compared regarding sociodemographic variables (gender, age), the Big Five personality traits, and coping strategies through chi-square tests or Student’s t-tests. Besides, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which of these determinants might play a part in the construction of a risk profile for compulsive buying. The results showed that other than gender (specifically being female), Neuroticism and the use of such coping strategies as problem avoidance and wishful thinking are risk factors that increase the propensity for compulsive buying. The use of active coping strategies such as problem solving, cognitive restructuring and social support, as well as the Conscientiousness dimension are protection factors that decrease the likelihood of becoming a compulsive buyer. Finally, and on the basis of the findings obtained, possible guidelines are given, which, hopefully, may effectively contribute to the prevention of and/or intervention in compulsive buying among young adults. Full article
Article
Personal and Work-Related Factors Associated with Good Care for Institutionalized Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 820; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020820 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1190
Abstract
Despite efforts to promote good care, many institutionalized older adults (IOA) experience elevated neglectful conditions and reduced person-centered care approaches. Based on the job demand–control model, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between nursing home professionals’ personal and organizational factors and good [...] Read more.
Despite efforts to promote good care, many institutionalized older adults (IOA) experience elevated neglectful conditions and reduced person-centered care approaches. Based on the job demand–control model, this study aimed to analyze the relationship between nursing home professionals’ personal and organizational factors and good care provided to institutionalized older people. Data was collected through a self-administered survey completed by 208 nursing home staff members. Three dimensions of personal factors (i.e., personal accomplishment, depersonalization, and negative old age stereotypes) were significant predictors of good care. Depersonalization and negative old age stereotypes were negatively associated with IOA, and both good care and personal accomplishment were positively associated with good care in nursing homes. Only one work-related factor (i.e., management support) was positively associated with good care. Personal factors may play a significant role in good care. Management support offers a promising mechanism to promote good care among nursing home professionals. The findings support the need to change the focus on entirely completing care tasks to providing good care of residents in nursing homes that promotes management support, personal accomplishment, personalization and positive old age consideration, attitudes, and behaviors. Policies and interventions should be developed to address in a more humanized way. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enhancing the Quality of Care in Long-Term Care Settings)
Article
Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Using Acinetobacter sp. SCYY-5 Isolated from Contaminated Oil Sludge: Strategy and Effectiveness Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 819; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020819 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Biodegradation has been considered as an ideal technique for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination, but its efficiency is limited by its application in the field. Herein, an original TPH-degrading strain, SCYY-5, was isolated from contaminated oil sludge and identified as Acinetobacter sp. by [...] Read more.
Biodegradation has been considered as an ideal technique for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contamination, but its efficiency is limited by its application in the field. Herein, an original TPH-degrading strain, SCYY-5, was isolated from contaminated oil sludge and identified as Acinetobacter sp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The biological function of the isolate was investigated by heavy metal tolerance, carbon, and nitrogen source and degradation tests. To enhance its biodegradation efficiency, the response surface methodology (RSM) based on a function model was adopted to investigate and optimize the strategy of microbial and environmental variables for TPH removal. Furthermore, the performance of the system increased to 79.94% with the further addition of extra nutrients, suggesting that the RSM and added nutrients increased the activity of bacteria to meet the needs of the co-metabolism matrix during growth or degradation. These results verified that it is feasible to adopt the optimal strategy of combining bioremediation with RSM to improve the biodegradation efficiency, for contaminated oil sludge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Ecology for Environmental Biotechnology)
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Article
Association of Social Frailty with Physical Health, Cognitive Function, Psychological Health, and Life Satisfaction in Community-Dwelling Older Koreans
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 818; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020818 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1064
Abstract
Social frailty affects various aspects of health in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of social frailty and the significance of its association with South Korean older adults’ health status and life satisfaction. This study involved a secondary data [...] Read more.
Social frailty affects various aspects of health in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to identify the prevalence of social frailty and the significance of its association with South Korean older adults’ health status and life satisfaction. This study involved a secondary data analysis of the 2017 National Survey of Older Koreans. From the 10,299 respondents of the survey, 10,081 were selected with no exclusion criteria. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors related to life satisfaction. Compared with the robust and social prefrailty groups, the social frailty group had higher nutritional risk (χ² = 312.161, p = 0.000), depressive symptoms (χ² = 977.587, p = 0.000), cognitive dysfunction (χ² = 25.051, p = 0.000), and lower life satisfaction (F = 1050.272, p = 0.000). The results of multiple linear regression, adjusted for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, indicated that social frailty had the strongest negative association with life satisfaction (β = −0.267, p = 0.000). However, cognitive function was significantly positively associated with life satisfaction (β = 0.062, p = 0.000). Social frailty was significantly correlated with physical, psychological, and mental health as well as life satisfaction in community-dwelling older South Koreans. Therefore, accounting for the social aspect of functioning is an essential part of a multidimensional approach to improving health and life satisfaction in communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Care for Older Adults)
Review
Safe Healthcare Facilities: A Systematic Review on the Costs of Establishing and Maintaining Environmental Health in Facilities in Low- and Middle-Income Countries
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 817; https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.3390/ijerph18020817 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1282
Abstract
A hygienic environment is essential to provide quality patient care and prevent healthcare-acquired infections. Understanding costs is important to budget for service delivery, but costs evidence for environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) is lacking. We present the first systematic review [...] Read more.
A hygienic environment is essential to provide quality patient care and prevent healthcare-acquired infections. Understanding costs is important to budget for service delivery, but costs evidence for environmental health services (EHS) in healthcare facilities (HCFs) is lacking. We present the first systematic review to evaluate the costs of establishing, operating, and maintaining EHS in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We systematically searched for studies costing water, sanitation, hygiene, cleaning, waste management, personal protective equipment, vector control, laundry, and lighting in LMICs. Our search yielded 36 studies that reported costs for 51 EHS. There were 3 studies that reported costs for water, 3 for sanitation, 4 for hygiene, 13 for waste management, 16 for cleaning, 2 for personal protective equipment, 10 for laundry, and none for lighting or vector control. Quality of evidence was low. Reported costs were rarely representative of the total costs of EHS provision. Unit costs were infrequently reported. This review identifies opportunities to improve costing research through efforts to categorize and disaggregate EHS costs, greater dissemination of existing unpublished data, improvements to indicators to monitor EHS demand and quality necessary to contextualize costs, and development of frameworks to define EHS needs and essential inputs to guide future costing. Full article
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